Thermal Energy Storage
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More About This Title Thermal Energy Storage


The ability of thermal energy storage (TES) systems to facilitate energy savings, renewable energy use and reduce environmental impact has led to a recent resurgence in their interest. The second edition of this book offers up-to-date coverage of recent energy efficient and sustainable technological methods and solutions, covering analysis, design and performance improvement as well as life-cycle costing and assessment. As well as having significantly revised the book for use as a graduate text, the authors address real-life technical and operational problems, enabling the reader to gain an understanding of the fundamental principles and practical applications of thermal energy storage technology.

Beginning with a general summary of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, this book goes on to discuss practical applications with chapters that include TES systems, environmental impact, energy savings, energy and exergy analyses, numerical modeling and simulation, case studies and new techniques and performance assessment methods.


Ibrahim Dincer & Mark Rosen, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), Canada
Ibrahim Dincer is Professor of Mechanical Engineering within the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at UOIT. His research interests include energy and energy conversion management, heat and mass transfer, thermodynamics, drying, refrigeration and thermal energy storage. He has received numerous awards for excellence in research, and is the Editor-in-Chief of the Wiley International Journal of Energy Research as well as the Elsevier journal Exergy: An International Journal. He has authored or co-authored 5 books - Exergy, 2006, Elsevier, Porous Media in Modern Technologies, Springer, 2004, Refrigeration Systems and Applications, Wiley, 2003, Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Applications, Wiley 2002, and Heat Transfer in Food Cooling Applications, Taylor & Francis, 2003.

Mark Rosen is Professor and founding Dean of the Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa, Canada. Prior to this appointment in 2002, he was a professor in the Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Industrial Engineering at Ryerson University in Toronto, Canada for 16 years. He has also worked for such organizations as Imatra Power Company in Finland, Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago, and the Institute for Hydrogen Systems, near Toronto.

With over 40 research grants and contracts and 350 technical publications, Dr. Rosen is an active teacher and researcher in thermodynamics and energy conversion. He was President of the Canadian Society for Mechanical Engineering from 2002 to 2004.


About the Authors xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1 General Introductory Aspects for Thermal Engineering 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Systems of Units 2

1.3 Fundamental Properties and Quantities 2

1.4 General Aspects of Thermodynamics 7

1.5 General Aspects of Fluid Flow 20

1.6 General Aspects of Heat Transfer 32

1.7 Concluding Remarks 45

2 Energy Storage Systems 51

2.1 Introduction 51

2.2 Energy Demand 52

2.3 Energy Storage 53

2.4 Energy Storage Methods 54

2.5 Hydrogen for Energy Storage 77

2.6 Comparison of ES Technologies 80

2.7 Concluding Remarks 80

3 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Methods 83

3.1 Introduction 83

3.2 Thermal Energy 84

3.3 Thermal Energy Storage 85

3.4 Solar Energy and TES 104

3.5 TES Methods 109

3.6 Sensible TES 109

3.7 Latent TES 127

3.8 Cold Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) 142

3.9 Seasonal TES 185

3.10 Concluding Remarks 187

4 Thermal Energy Storage and Environmental Impact 191

4.1 Introduction 191

4.2 Energy and the Environment 192

4.3 Major Environmental Problems 193

4.4 Environmental Impact and TES Systems and Applications 198

4.5 Potential Solutions to Environmental Problems 198

4.6 Sustainable Development 199

4.7 Illustrative Examples and Case Studies 204

4.8 Concluding Remarks 207

5 Thermal Energy Storage and Energy Savings 211

5.1 Introduction 211

5.2 TES and Energy Savings 212

5.3 Additional Energy Savings Considerations for TES 215

5.4 Energy Conservation with TES: Planning and Implementation 217

5.5 Some Limitations on Increased Efficiency 218

5.6 Energy Savings for Cold TES 219

55.7 Concluding Remarks 230

6 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Thermal Energy Storage Systems 233

6.1 Introduction 233

6.2 Theory: Energy and Exergy Analyses 234

6.3 Thermodynamic Considerations in TES Evaluation 246

6.4 Exergy Evaluation of a Closed TES System 249

6.5 Appropriate Efficiency Measures for Closed TES Systems 260

6.6 Importance of Temperature in Performance Evaluations for Sensible TES Systems 269

6.7 Exergy Analysis of Aquifer TES Systems 272

6.8 Exergy Analysis of Thermally Stratified Storages 281

6.9 Energy and Exergy Analyses of Cold TES Systems 298

6.10 Exergy-Based Optimal Discharge Periods for Closed TES Systems 309

6.11 Exergy Analysis of Solar Ponds 314

6.12 Concluding Remarks 323

Appendix: Glossary of Selected Exergy-Related Terminology 332

7 Numerical Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Energy Storage Systems 335

7.1 Introduction 335

7.2 Approaches and Methods 336

7.3 Selected Applications 337

7.4 Numerical Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Sensible TES Systems 340

7.6 Numerical Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis of Latent TES Systems 366

7.8 Illustrative Application for a Complex System: Numerical Assessment of Encapsulated Ice TES with Variable Heat Transfer Coefficients 391

7.9 Concluding Remarks 406

8 Thermal Energy Storage Case Studies 413

8.1 Introduction 413

8.2 Ice CTES Case Studies 414

8.3 Ice-Slurry CTES Case Studies 432

8.4 Chilled Water CTES Case Studies 436

8.5 PCM-Based CTES Case Studies 446

8.6 PCM-Based Latent TES for Heating Case Studies 455

8.7 Sensible TES Case Studies 457

8.8 Other Case Studies 459

8.9 Concluding Remarks 479

9 Recent Advances in TES Methods, Technologies, and Applications 483

9.1 Introduction 483

9.2 Recent TES Investigations 483

9.3 Developments in TES Types and Performance 486

9.4 Micro- and Macro-Level Advances in TES Systems and Applications 504

9.5 Micro-Level Advances in TES Systems 504

9.6 Macro-Level Advances in TES Systems and Applications 514

9.7 Performance Enhancement Techniques 530

9.8 Innovative Applications of TES Systems 535

9.9 Advanced Applications of Exergy Methods 542

9.10 Illustrative Examples 545

9.11 Future Outlook for TES 566

Appendix A Conversion Factors 585

Appendix B Thermophysical Properties 587

Appendix C Glossary 593

Index 595