Introductory Statistics Eighth Edition

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Introductory Statistics, 8th Edition is written for a one or two semester first course in applied statistics and is intended for students who do not have a strong background in mathematics. The only prerequisite is knowledge of elementary algebra. Introductory Statistics, 8th Edition is known for its realistic examples and exercises, clarity and brevity of presentation, and soundness of pedagogical approach. Case studies appear in almost all chapters to provide additional illustrations of the applications of statistics in research and statistical analysis and the text contains a wealth of examples that cover a wide variety of relevant statistical topics.

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Statistics and Types of Statistics 2

Case Study 1–1 How Much Did Companies Spend on Ads in 2011? 3

Case Study 1–2 How Women Rate Their Lives 4

1.2 Population Versus Sample 5

Case Study 1–3 Are We Becoming Less "Green?" 7

1.3 Basic Terms 8

1.4 Types of Variables 10

1.5 Cross-Section Versus Time-Series Data 12

1.6 Sources of Data 14

1.7 Summation Notation 15

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Project/ Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 2 Organizing and Graphing Data 28

2.1 Organizing and Graphing Qualitative Data 29

Case Study 2–1 Will Today's Children Be Better Off Than Their Parents? 32

Case Study 2–2 Employees' Overall Financial Stress Levels 33

2.2 Organizing and Graphing Quantitative Data 36

Case Study 2–3 How Long Does Your Typical One-Way Commute Take? 42

Case Study 2–4 How Much Does It Cost to Insure a Car? 43

Case Study 2–5 How Many Cups of Coffee Do You Drink a Day? 46

2.3 Cumulative Frequency Distributions 54

2.4 Stem-and-Leaf Displays 57

2.5 Dotplots 62

Uses and Misuses / Glossary /Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 3 Numerical Descriptive Measures 85

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency for Ungrouped Data 86

Case Study 3–1 Average NFL Ticket Prices in the Secondary Market 89

Case Study 3–2 Average Is Over 90

Case Study 3–3 Education Pays 92

3.2 Measures of Dispersion for Ungrouped Data 99

3.3 Mean, Variance, and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 106

3.4 Use of Standard Deviation 113

Case Study 3–4 Does Spread Mean the Same as Variability and Dispersion? 116

3.5 Measures of Position 118

3.6 Box-and-Whisker Plot 123

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Appendix 3.1 /

Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 4 Probability 146

4.1 Experiment, Outcome, and Sample Space 147

4.2 Calculating Probability 152

4.3 Marginal Probability, Conditional Probability, and Related Probability Concepts 158

Case Study 4–1 Do You Worry About Your Weight? 162

4.4 Intersection of Events and the Multiplication Rule 170

4.5 Union of Events and the Addition Rule 179

4.6 Counting Rule, Factorials, Combinations, and Permutations 187

Case Study 4–2 Probability of Winning a Mega Millions Lottery Jackpot 192

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 5 Discrete Random Variables and Their Probability Distributions 209

5.1 Random Variables 210

5.2 Probability Distribution of a Discrete Random Variable 212

5.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of a Discrete Random Variable 219

Case Study 5–1 \$1,000 Downpour 221

5.4 The Binomial Probability Distribution 226

5.5 The Hypergeometric Probability Distribution 239

5.6 The Poisson Probability Distribution 242

Case Study 5–2 Global Birth and Death Rates 246

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 6 Continuous Random Variables and the Normal Distribution 264

6.1 Continuous Probability Distribution and the Normal Probability Distribution 265

Case Study 6–1 Distribution of Time Taken to Run a Road Race 269

6.2 Standardizing a Normal Distribution 281

6.3 Applications of the Normal Distribution 287

6.4 Determining the z and x Values When an Area Under the Normal Distribution Curve Is Known 292

6.5 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 297

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Appendix 6.1 / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 7 Sampling Distributions 320

7.1 Sampling Distribution, Sampling Error, and Nonsampling Errors 321

7.2 Mean and Standard Deviation of x– 326

7.3 Shape of the Sampling Distribution of x– 330

7.4 Applications of the Sampling Distribution of x– 336

7.5 Population and Sample Proportions; and Mean, Standard Deviation, and Shape of the Sampling Distribution of p 341

7.6 Applications of the Sampling Distribution of ˆp 348

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 8 Estimation of the Mean and Proportion 360

8.1 Estimation, Point Estimate, and Interval Estimate 361

8.2 Estimation of a Population Mean: Known 364

Case Study 8–1 How Much Did Registered Nurses Earn in 2011? 370

8.3 Estimation of a Population Mean: Not Known 374

8.4 Estimation of a Population Proportion: Large Samples 383

Case Study 8–2 Do You Bring Your Lunch From Home? 386

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 9 Hypothesis Tests About the Mean and Proportion 404

9.1 Hypothesis Tests: An Introduction 405

9.2 Hypothesis Tests About : Known 413

Case Study 9–1 Average Student Debt for the Class of 2010 422

9.3 Hypothesis Tests About : Not Known 427

9.4 Hypothesis Tests About a Population Proportion: Large Samples 437

Case Study 9–2 Is Raising Taxes on the Rich Fair? 443

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 10 Estimation and Hypothesis Testing: Two Populations 462

10.1 Inferences About the Difference Between Two Population Means for Independent Samples: 1 and 2 Known 463

10.2 Inferences About the Difference Between Two Population Means for Independent Samples: 1 and 2 Unknown but Equal 470

Case Study 10–1 One-Way Commute Times For Six Cities 476

10.3 Inferences About the Difference Between Two Population Means for Independent Samples: 1 and 2 Unknown and Unequal 480

10.4 Inferences About the Difference Between Two Population Means for Paired Samples 487

10.5 Inferences About the Difference Between Two Population Proportions for Large and Independent Samples 496

Case Study 10–2 Do You Worry About Your Weight? 501

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 11 Chi-Square Tests 521

11.1 The Chi-Square Distribution 522

11.2 A Goodness-of-Fit Test 525

Case Study 11–1 Are People on Wall Street Honest and Moral? 530

11.3 A Test of Independence or Homogeneity 534

11.4 Inferences About the Population Variance 546

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 12 Analysis of Variance 566

12.1 The F Distribution 567

12.2 One-Way Analysis of Variance 569

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 13 Simple Linear Regression 591

13.1 Simple Linear Regression 592

Case Study 13–1 Regression of Weights on Heights for NFL Players 601

13.2 Standard Deviation of Errors and Coefficient of Determination 608

13.3 Inferences About B 614

13.4 Linear Correlation 620

13.5 Regression Analysis: A Complete Example 626

13.6 Using the Regression Model 633

Uses and Misuses / Glossary / Supplementary Exercises / Advanced Exercises / Self-Review Test / Mini-Projects / Decide for Yourself / Technology Instruction / Technology Assignments

CHAPTER 14 Multiple Regression 651

This chapter is not included in this text but is available for download from WileyPLUS or from www.wiley.com/college/mann.

CHAPTER 15 Nonparametric Methods 652

This chapter is not included in this text but is available for download from WileyPLUS or from www.wiley.com/college/mann.

APPENDIX A Sample Surveys, Sampling Techniques, And Design Of Experiments A1

A.1 Sources of Data A1

A.2 Sample Surveys and Sampling Techniques A3

A.3 Design of Experiments A9

APPENDIX B Explanation Of Data Sets B1

Data Set I: City Data B1

Data Set II: Data on States B3

Data Set III: NFL Data B3

Data Set IV: Beach to Beacon 10k Road Race Data B3

Data Set V: Sample of 500 Observations Selected From Beach to Beacon 10k Road Race Data B4

Data Set VI: Data on Movies B4

Data Set VII: Standard & Poor’s 100 Index Data B4

Data Set VIII: McDonald's Data B4

Data Set IX: Candidate Data B5

Data Set X: Kickers2010 Data B6

Data Set XI: Billboard Data B6

Data Set XII: Motorcycle Data B6

Data Set XIII: Simulated Data B7

APPENDIX C Statistical Tables C1

Table I Table of Binomial Probabilities C2

Table II Values of e C11

Table III Table of Poisson Probabilities C13

Table IV Standard Normal Distribution Table C19

Table V The t Distribution Table C21

Table VI Chi-Square Distribution Table C23

Table VII The F Distribution Table C24

Tables VIII through XII (listed below) are available from WileyPLUS or from www.wiley.com/college/mann.

Table VIII Critical Values of X for the Sign Test

Table IX Critical Values of T for the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test

Table X Critical Values of T for the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test

Table XI Critical Values for the Spearman Rho Rank Correlation Coefficient Test

Table XII Critical Values for a Two-Tailed Runs Test with A .05

ANSWERS TO SELECTED ODD-NUMBERED EXERCISES AND SELF REVIEW TESTS AN1

INDEX