Fuels and Fuel-Additives
Buy Rights Online Buy Rights

Rights Contact

No rights contact to display

More About This Title Fuels and Fuel-Additives

English

Examines all stages of fuel production, from feedstocks to finished products

Exploring chemical structures and properties, this book sheds new light on the current science and technology of producing energy efficient and environmentally friendly fuels. Moreover, it explains the role of fuel-additives in the production cycle. This expertly written and organized guide to fuels and fuel-additives also presents requirements, rules and regulations, including US and EU standards governing automotive emissions, fuel quality and specifications, alternate fuels, biofuels, antioxidants, deposit control detergents/dispersants, stabilizers, corrosion inhibitors, and polymeric fuel-additives.

Fuels and Fuel-Additives covers all stages and facets of the production of engine fuels as well as heating and fuel oils. The book begins with a quick portrait of the future of fuels and fuel production. Then, it sets forth the regulations controlling exhaust gas emissions and fuel quality from around the world. Next, the book covers:

Processing of engine fuels derived from crude oil, including the production of blending componentsProduction of alternative fuelsFuel-additives for automotive enginesBlending of fuelsKey properties of motor fuels and their effects on engines and the environmentAviation fuels

The final chapter of the book deals with fuel oils and marine fuels. Each chapter is extensively referenced, providing a gateway to the primary and secondary literature in the field. At the end of the book, a convenient glossary defines all the key terms used in the book.

Examining the full production cycle from feedstocks to final products, Fuels and Fuel-Additives is recommended for students, engineers, and scientists working in fuels and energy production.

English

SOM PRAKASH SRIVASTAVA, MSc, DPhil, has forty-five years of research experience in the field of fuels, lubricants, and additives. He is a former executive director of the R&D center of Indian Oil Corporation (a global Fortune 500 company), and Director of Indian Oil Blending Ltd and Iftex Oils & Chemicals Ltd. Dr. Srivastava has been responsible for developing an entire range of fuels and lubricants for the Indian Oil Corporation. The author and coauthor of 200 research papers, thirty patents, and four books, Dr. Srivastava is currently an independent consultant on fuels and lubricants.

JENŐ HANCSÓK, MSc, Doctor of Hungarian Academy of Sciences, is head of the MOL Department of Hydrocarbon and Coal Processing at the University of Pannonia and a consultant of the international oil and gas company, MOL Plc. He is the author or coauthor of more than 700 papers and presentations, and holds fourteen patents that are applied in the chemical industry. Dr. Hancsók devotes his research to the study and development of engine fuels, engine oils, and their additives, working with both fossil and renewable energy sources.

English

Preface ix

1 Petroleum-Based Fuels – An outlook 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Environmental Issues 4

1.3 Classification of Fuels 6

References 8

2 Emission Regulation of Automotive Vehicles and Quality of Automotive Fuels 11

2.1 Direct Regulation of Emissions 11

2.1.1 Emission Standards in Europe 13

2.1.2 US (EPA) Emission Standards 14

2.1.3 Emission Regulation in Japan 25

2.1.4 Emission Standards in India 25

2.1.5 Emission Standards in China 33

2.2 Indirect Emission Regulations (International Standards) 34

References 45

3 Fuels from Crude Oil (Petroleum) 48

3.1 Crude Oil 48

3.2 Crude Oil Refining 52

3.2.1 Separation and Extraction Processes 52

3.2.2 Change of Quality and Yield of Hydrocarbon Fractions 57

References 105

4 Alternative Fuels 121

4.1 Light (Gaseous) Hydrocarbons 123

4.2 Propane-Butane Gas 123

4.3 Mixtures of Synthetic Liquid Hydrocarbons 127

4.3.1 Liquid Synthetic Hydrocarbon Mixtures from Synthesis Gas 128

4.3.2 Biogas Oils from Triglycerides 133

4.3.3 Production of Bioparaffins from Lignocellulose and Carbohydrates 136

4.4 Oxygen-Containing Engine Fuels and Blending Components 136

4.4.1 Alcohols 137

4.4.2 Ethers 144

4.4.3 Vegetable Oils and Their Oxygen-Containing Derivatives 145

4.5 Hydrogen 152

4.5.1 Production of Hydrogen 152

4.5.2 Main Characteristic of Hydrogen 156

4.5.3 Hydrogen Storage on Vehicle and Reloading 157

References 159

5 Fuel Additives 177

5.1 Consumption of Additives (Demands) 182

5.2 Engine Deposits and their Control 184

5.2.1 Deposits in Gasoline Engines 184

5.2.2 Deposit Control Additives (Detergent Dispersants) 188

5.2.3 Deposits and Their Control in Diesel Engines 201

5.2.4 Detergent Additives and Exhaust Emissions 204

5.2.5 Tests for DD Additives in Engines 205

5.2.6 Advantages of using DD Additives in Fuels 208

5.3 Antiknock Additives (Octane Number Improvers) 209

5.3.1 “Knocking” 209

5.3.2 Octane Number 209

5.3.3 Octane Number Improver Additives 210

5.4 Cetane Number Improver 213

5.4.1 Cetane Number Improver Additives 215

5.4.2 Cetane Number Measurement 217

5.4.3 Cetane Index 217

5.5 Fuel Antioxidants (Stabilizers) 217

5.5.1 Increasing Storage Stability 218

5.5.2 Oxidation of Fuels 218

5.5.3 Chemical Mechanism of Antioxidants 219

5.5.4 Types of Antioxidants 220

5.6 Metal Deactivators/Passivators 223

5.7 Corrosion Inhibitors 225

5.7.1 Mechanism of Rusting/Corrosion 225

5.7.2 Anticorrosion Compounds 227

5.8 Antistatic Agents 228

5.9 Lubricity Improvers 229

5.10 Friction Modifiers 233

5.11 Dehazer and Demulsifiers 237

5.12 Combustion Improvers 238

5.12.1 Conventional Approaches 239

5.12.2 Unconventional Approaches 242

5.13 Flow Improvers and Paraffin Dispersants of Fuels 243

5.13.1 Characteristics of Middle Distillate Fuel at Low Temperatures 245

5.13.2 Pour Point Depressants 246

5.13.3 Flow Improver Additives 247

5.13.4 Paraffin Dispersants 248

5.13.5 Distillate Operability Test (DOT Test) 253

5.14 Drag Reducers 253

5.15 Anti-icing Additives 255

5.16 Antifoam Additives 255

5.17 Biocides 256

5.18 Coloring Matters and Markers 256

5.19 Additive Compositions 256

References 257

6 Blending of Fuels 270

6.1 Blending of Gasolines 270

6.2 Blending of Diesel Gasoils 271

7 Properties of Motor Fuels and Their Effects on Engines and the Environment 277

7.1 Effects of Gasoline Properties on Engines and the Environment 277

7.1.1 Combustion Process (Octane Number) 278

7.1.2 Volatility of Engine Gasolines 286

7.1.3 Stability of Gasolines 290

7.1.4 Corrosive Properties 293

7.1.5 Chemical Composition 294

7.1.6 Other Properties 297

7.2 Effects of Properties of Diesel Gasoils on Engines and the Environment 299

7.2.1 Ignition and Combustion Properties of Diesel gasoils 300

7.2.2 Density and Energy Content of Diesel Gasoils 300

7.2.3 Distillation Properties of Diesel Fuels 301

7.2.4 Chemical Composition 303

7.2.5 Stability of Diesel Gasoils 303

7.2.6 Corrosion Properties 305

7.2.7 Lubricating Properties 305

7.2.8 Low-Temperature Flow Properties 306

7.2.9 Effects of Chemical Composition on Emissions 306

7.2.10 Other Properties 310

References 311

8 Aviation Fuels 316

8.1 Aviation Gasolines 316

8.1.1 Aviation Gasoline Grades 317

8.1.2 Aviation Gasoline Additives 317

8.1.3 Automotive Gasoline for Aircraft 319

8.2 Jet Fuels 320

8.2.1 Main Quality Requirements and Properties of Jet Fuels 320

8.2.2 Aviation Turbine Fuel Specifications 321

8.2.3 Production of Aviation Turbine Fuels 324

8.2.4 Additives of Jet fuel 328

References 331

9 Fuel Oils and Marine Fuels 333

9.1 Classification of Fuel Oils 334

9.1.1 Characteristics of Fuel Oils 335

9.1.2 Classification of Heating Fuels for Power Plants 336

9.1.3 Classification of Bunker Fuels 338

9.2 Production of Fuel Oils 341

9.3 Fuel Oil Stability and Compatibility 346

9.4 Additives for Residual Fuels 347

References 348

Glossary: Common terminology in Fuels and additives 351

Index 359

English

“The extensive and varied list of references will be of value to those working in the field even though some of the material listed appears to be from rather inaccessible sources.”  (Energy Technology, 1 October 2014)

loading