Print and Specifications Reading for Construction
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More About This Title Print and Specifications Reading for Construction


Accurately interpret graphic and written construction documents

Construction documents are the vital link between the architect's vision and the finished physical structure. Building professionals must accurately read and follow these documents in order to build a given design in the most efficient way possible.

Print and Specifications Reading for Construction explains exactly how to interpret construction documents, offering students and professionals a complete package for learning and understanding. The text clearly lays out different graphic and written document types, how they developed, what information they contain, and their current use in residential and commercial construction today. Next, it looks in depth at the documents, revealing how each type works in action through example projects. Alongside the text, online access to three complete sets of sample sheets gives you experience working with prints and specifications.

Inside you will discover:

  • How to solve real construction problems in large-scale residential and commercial projects

  • Coverage of architectural, structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and civil drawings and specifications

  • Relevant terminology for, and practical applications of, sustainability and Building Information Modeling (BIM)

  • Practice questions and exercises throughout

An all-in-one reference that combines clearly written text, complete document sample sets, and up-to-date digital resources, Print and Specifications Reading for Construction is an essential companion for anyone learning or practicing construction or contracting.


Ron Russell has been¿an instructor at the North Lake College¿s Construction Management and Technology Department in Dallas, Texas, for over twenty years. He is also Senior Construction Administrator for PBK Architects. Previously, he was associate director of facilities technical services at Southern Methodist University.


Introduction xi

Section I The project process 1

Chapter 1 Evolution of the Construction Project 3

The Construction Phases 3

The Construction Project Team Members 13

The Construction Team Relationships 16

Summary 18

Chapter 1 Learning Outcomes 19

Chapter 1 Questions 19

Chapter 2 Construction Project Contract Documents 21

Agreements between the Primary Team Members 21

Project Definition Documents 22

Summary 29

Chapter 2 Learning Outcomes 29

Chapter 2 Questions 30

Chapter 3 Working Drawings 31

The Drawing Structure 31

The Drawing Elements 40

Drawing Scales and Dimensions 52

Summary 57

Chapter 3 Learning Outcomes 57

Chapter 3 Questions 58

Chapter 4 Specifications 59

Specification Users 59

The Specifications Structure 60

Information in the Specifications 73

Summary 75

Chapter 4 Learning Outcomes 76

Chapter 4 Questions 76

Chapter 5 Finding Construction Information in the Working Drawings and Specifications 77

Document Structure Review 77

First Look at the Working Drawings and Specifications 80

Finding Construction Information in the Working Drawings and Specifications 82

Summary 85

Chapter 5 Learning Outcomes 85

Chapter 5 Questions 85

Section II Building The Project 87

Chapter 6 Architectural Category of the Drawings 89

Division 1, “General Requirements” 89

Division 4, “Masonry” 91

Division 5, “Metals” 93

Division 6, “Woods, Plastics, and Composites” 95

Division 7, “Thermal and Moisture Protection” 97

Division 8, “Opening” 104

Division 9, “Finishes” 112

Division 10, “Specialties” 125

Divisions 11 and 12, “Equipment” and “Furnishings” 125

Division 14, “Conveying Equipment” 125

Summary 129

Chapter 7 Structural Category of the Drawings 131

Division 3, “Concrete” 133

Division 4, “Masonry” 138

Division 5, “Metals” 141

Division 6, “Woods, Plastics, and Composites” 150

Summary 153

Chapter 8 Mechanical Category of the Drawings 157

HVAC Systems 158

Summary 170

Chapter 9 Electrical Category of the Drawings 171

Main Power Distribution 172

Secondary Level of Power Distribution 176

Lighting Electrical Distribution Systems 181

Summary 183

Chapter 10 Plumbing Category of the Drawings 185

Supply Piping Systems 185

Plumbing Collection Systems 195

Summary 199

Chapter 11 Civil/Sitework Category of the Drawings 201

Civil Drawings 201

Architects Site Plans 212

MEP Drawings 212

Summary 215

Glossary 217

Index 225