Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation
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More About This Title Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation


Explore the military and combat applications of modeling and simulation

Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation is the first book of its kind to address the three perspectives that simulation engineers must master for successful military and defense related modeling: the operational view (what needs to be modeled); the conceptual view (how to do combat modeling); and the technical view (how to conduct distributed simulation). Through methods from the fields of operations research, computer science, and engineering, readers are guided through the history, current training practices, and modern methodology related to combat modeling and distributed simulation systems. Comprised of contributions from leading international researchers and practitioners, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the engineering principles and state-of-the-art methods needed to address the many facets of combat modeling and distributed simulation and features the following four sections:

  • Foundations introduces relevant topics and recommended practices, providing the needed basis for understanding the challenges associated with combat modeling and distributed simulation.
  • Combat Modeling focuses on the challenges in human, social, cultural, and behavioral modeling such as the core processes of "move, shoot, look, and communicate" within a synthetic environment and also equips readers with the knowledge to fully understand the related concepts and limitations.
  • Distributed Simulation introduces the main challenges of advanced distributed simulation, outlines the basics of validation and verification, and exhibits how these systems can support the operational environment of the warfighter.
  • Advanced Topics highlights new and developing special topic areas, including mathematical applications fo combat modeling; combat modeling with high-level architecture and base object models; and virtual and interactive digital worlds.

Featuring practical examples and applications relevant to industrial and government audiences, Engineering Principles of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation is an excellent resource for researchers and practitioners in the fields of operations research, military modeling, simulation, and computer science. Extensively classroom tested, the book is also ideal for courses on modeling and simulation; systems engineering; and combat modeling at the graduate level.


ANDREAS TOLK, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Engineering Management and Systems Engineering at Old Dominion University. He supported the development of the discipline of modeling and simulation with his publications for a variety of modeling and simulation conferences as well as his contributions to various NATO research activities in the domains of combat modeling, command and control, and studies and analysis.


Preface xi

Contributors xiii

Biographies xvii

Acknowledgments xxvii

Abbreviations xxix

1. Challenges of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation 1
Andreas Tolk

Part I Foundations

2. Applicable Codes of Ethics 25
Andreas Tolk

3. The NATO Code of Best Practice for Command and Control Assessment 33
Andreas Tolk

4. Terms and Application Domains 55
Andreas Tolk

5. Scenario Elements 79
Andreas Tolk

Part II Combat Modeling

6. Modeling the Environment 95
Andreas Tolk

7. Modeling Movement 113
Andreas Tolk

8. Modeling Sensing 127
Andreas Tolk

9. Modeling Effects 145
Andreas Tolk

10. Modeling Communications, Command, and Control 171
Andreas Tolk

Part III Distributed Simulation

11. Challenges of Distributed Simulation 187
Andreas Tolk

12. Standards for Distributed Simulation 209
Andreas Tolk

13. Modeling and Simulation Development and Preparation Processes 243
Andreas Tolk

14. Verification and Validation 263
Andreas Tolk

15. Integration of M&S Solutions into the Operational Environment 295
Andreas Tolk

Part IV Advanced Topics

16. History of Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation 331
Margaret L. Loper and Charles Turnitsa

17. Serious Games, Virtual Worlds, and Interactive Digital Worlds 357
Roger D. Smith

18. Mathematical Applications for Combat Modeling 385
Patrick T. Hester and Andrew Collins

19. Combat Modeling with the High Level Architecture and Base Object Models 413
Mikel D. Petty and Paul Gustavson

20. The Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) 449
Edward T. Powell and J. Russell Noseworthy

21. Combat Modeling using the DEVS Formalism 479
Tag Gon Kim and Il-Chul Moon

22. GIS Data for Combat Modeling 511
David Lashlee, Joe Bricio, Robert Holcomb, and William T. Richards

23. Modeling Tactical Data Links 537
Joe Sorroche

24. Standards-Based Combat Simulation Initialization using the Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) 579
Robert L. Wittman Jr

25. Multi-Resolution Combat Modeling 607
Mikel D. Petty, Robert W. Franceschini, and James Panagos

26. New Challenges: Human, Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Modeling 641
S. K. Numrich and P. M. Picucci

27. Agent Directed Simulation for Combat Modeling and Distributed Simulation 669
Gnana K. Bharathy, Levent Yilmaz, and Andreas Tolk

28. Uncertainty Representation and Reasoning for Combat Models 715
Paulo C. G. Costa, Heber Herencia-Zapana, and Kathryn Laskey

29. Model-Based Data Engineering for Distributed Simulations 747
Saikou Y. Diallo

30. Federated Simulation for System of Systems Engineering 765
Robert H. Kewley and Marc Wood

31. The Role of Architecture Frameworks in Simulation Models: The Human View Approach 811
Holly A. H. Handley

32. Multinational Computer Assisted Exercises 825
Erdal Cayirci

Annex 1: M&S Organizations/Associations 841
Salim Chemlal and Tuncer Ören

Annex 2: Military Simulation Systems 851
José J. Padilla

Index 869


“Tolk and his coauthors have extensive experience in this area, making this volume a standard reference for researchers engaged in combat modeling. The complexity of the domain, the consequences of error, and the prohibitive cost of direct experimentation are as great in combat modeling as in any other problem area, making this volume a valuable source of examples and techniques for modelers in other areas that are highly complex, consequential, and inaccessible by direct experiment."  (Computing Reviews, 1 October 2012)