Introduction to Microfabrication 2e
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This accessible text is now fully revised and updated, providing an overview of fabrication technologies and materials needed to realize modern microdevices. It demonstrates how common microfabrication principles can be applied in different applications, to create devices ranging from nanometer probe tips to meter scale solar cells, and a host of microelectronic, mechanical, optical and fluidic devices in between. Latest developments in wafer engineering, patterning, thin films, surface preparation and bonding are covered.

This second edition includes:

  • expanded sections on MEMS and microfluidics related fabrication issues
  • new chapters on polymer and glass microprocessing, as well as serial processing techniques
  • 200 completely new and 200 modified figures
  • more coverage of imprinting techniques, process integration and economics of microfabrication
  • 300 homework exercises including conceptual thinking assignments, order of magnitude estimates, standard calculations, and device design and process analysis problems
  • solutions to homework problems on the complementary website, as well as PDF slides of the figures and tables within the book

With clear sections separating basic principles from more advanced material, this is a valuable textbook for senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students wanting to understand the fundamentals of microfabrication. The book also serves as a handy desk reference for practicing electrical engineers, materials scientists, chemists and physicists alike.


Professor Sami Franssila, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
Sami Franssila has taught courses on microfluidics, bioMEMs, microsystems, nanoscience, silicon microtechnology and thin-film technology at Helsinki University of Technology since 1998. He is group leader of the Microfabrication group at Micronova, the Centre for Micro and Nanotechnology which is run jointly by the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and Helsinki University of Technology.
Professor Franssila researches into micro- and nanofabrication for fluidic, chemical and biological devices, chemical microsystems and thin film technology.
He has authored or co-authored over 60 peer reviewed articles, 120 international conference papers and written one textbook Introduction to Microfabrication, published by John Wiley & Sons in 2004.


Preface to the First Edition.

Preface to the Second Edition.


1 Introduction.


3 Simulation of Microfabrication Processes.

4 Silicon.

5 Thin-Film Materials and Processes.

6 Epitaxy.

7 Advanced Thin Films.

8 Pattern Generation.

9 Optical Lithography.

10 Advanced Lithography.

11 Etching.

12 Wafer Cleaning and Surface Preparation.

13 Thermal Oxidation.

14 Diffusion.

15 Ion Implantation.

16 CMP: Chemical–Mechanical Polishing.

17 Bonding.

18 Polymer Microprocessing.

19 Glass Microprocessing.

20 Anisotropic Wet Etching.

21 Deep Reactive Ion Etching.

22 Wafer Engineering.

23 Special Processes and Materials.

24 Serial Microprocessing.

25 Process Integration.

26 MOS Transistor Fabrication.

27 Bipolar Transistors.

28 Multilevel Metallization.

29 Surface Micromachining.

30 MEMS Process Integration.

31 Process Equipment.

32 Equipment for Hot Processes.

33 Vacuum and Plasmas.

34 CVD and Epitaxy Equipment.

35 Cleanrooms.

36 Yield and Reliability.

37 Economics of Microfabrication.

38 Moore's Law and Scaling Trends.

39 Microfabrication at Large.

Appendix A Properties of Silicon.

Appendix B Constants and Conversion Factors.

Appendix C Oxide and Nitride Thickness by Color.