The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice
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More About This Title The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice


***Selected as a 2015 Outstanding Reference Source by Reference and User Services Association, a division of the American Library Association***

“An excellent introduction to topics under the criminology umbrella for those unschooled

in the field and a state-of-the-art refresher for those who are.” – Choice

  • Offers wide-ranging and comprehensive coverage spanning 15 substantive areas within criminology and criminal justice, including criminal law, juvenile justice, education and professionalism, history of crime, and victimization
  • Combines state-of-the-art coverage of developments in areas such as homeland security and forensic science, with the core topics within criminology and criminal justice
  • Edited by one of criminology’s leading authorities, and peer reviewed by a team of 14 associate editors, all of whom are renowned in their fields
  • Brings together an international team of contributors from ten countries to offer a uniquely global perspective on topics such as transnational crime

5 Volumes


Jay S. Albanese is Professor in the Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs at Virginia Commonwealth University. A celebrated authority on criminology and criminal justice, he is the former head of the International Center at the National Institute of Justice – the research arm of the US Department of Justice – and has received many prestigious awards, including The Elske Smith Distinguished Lecturer Award from Virginia Commonwealth University, and The Gerhard Mueller Award from the International Section of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Dr. Albanese is the current chair of the American Society of Criminology’s Division of International Criminology. He is the author or editor of more than 15 books, including Professional Ethics in Criminal Justice: Being Ethical When No One is Looking (Third Edition, 2012), Transnational Crime and the 21st Century (2011), and Organized Crime in Our Times (Sixth Edition, 2011).


About the Editors vii

Notes on Contributors xi

Lexicon lxi

Introduction lxix

Acknowledgments lxxiii

Volume I Criminology and Criminal Justice Ab–Co 1

Volume II Criminology and Criminal Justice Cr–Gu 462

Volume III Criminology and Criminal Justice Ha–Mu 999

Volume IV Criminology and Criminal Justice Na–Ru 1503

Volume V Criminology and Criminal Justice Sa–Wr 2017

Index 2499


“This work is set to be the first in series from Wiley and if this work is an indication of what is to follow, I will very much look forward to the future sets focusing on theoretical criminology, juvenile justice and delinquency and, finally, crime and punishment.”  (Reference Reviews, 1 June 2015)

“Summing Up: Highly recommended.  Libraries supporting upper-level undergraduates through  practitioners in criminology/criminal justice; general readers.”  (Choice, 1 September 2014)

“Anyone among us who can advance effective strategies for persuading this generation of students that there is still much of value to be gained from engaging with encyclopedias such as this one would be making a highly commendable contribution to our field.”  (American Reference Books Annual, 1 June 2014)

“Jay Albanese and the Associate Editors have created an outstanding reference for scholars, students, and practitioners of criminal justice and criminology. The five volumes are a significant contribution to our discipline. From historical references to the present, the entries are informative and well researched. In brief, The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice is an excellent resource.” 

—Alida V. Merlo, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

“The diverse group of highly qualified scholars represented in this resource has provided us with quick access to high-quality and well-referenced material suitable for both academic and professional pursuits.”

—Philip L. Reichel, University of Northern Colorado

“This is an excellent reference work focusing on historical and contemporary issues in criminology and criminal justice. The topics are timely and each article effectively summarizes and synthesizes the literature.”

—Cassia Spohn, Arizona State University