The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, Fourth Edition
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More About This Title The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, Fourth Edition


The practical, comprehensive handbook for creating effective architectural drawings

In one beautifully illustrated volume, The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings, Fourth Edition presents the complete range of skills, concepts, principles, and applications that are needed to create a full set of architectural working drawings. Chapters proceed logically through each stage of development, beginning with site and floor plans and progressing to building sections, elevations, and additional drawings.

Inside, you'll find:

Coverage of the latest BIM technologies

Environmental and human design considerations

Supplemental step-by-step instructions for complex chapters

Five case studies, including two that are new to this edition

Hundreds of computer-generated drawings and photographs, including BIM models, three-dimensional models, and full-size buildings shown in virtual space

Checklists similar to those used in architectural offices

Tips and strategies for complete development of construction documents, from schematic design to construction administration

With an emphasis on sustainability throughout, this new edition of The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings is an invaluable book for students in architecture, construction, engineering, interior design, and environmental design programs, as well as professionals in these fields.


Osamu A. Wakita, Hon. AIA, is a retired professor of architecture and former department chair of architecture at Los Angeles Harbor College. He has been involved in architectural education since 1958. He is a recipient of the California Council of the American Institute of Architects' prestigious Outstanding Architectural Educators Award and is listed in the Council's General Reference as one of the leading authorities in perspective drawing.

Nagy R. Bakhoum is a licensed architect and principal of Obelisk Architects, Inc., in Torrance, California. He has provided architectural services internationally and throughout the state in which he is licensed to practice. He is an authority on high-end residential housing and commercial projects. He has been involved in architectural education since 1996, and is also a Professor of Architecture in the Los Angeles Community College District system.

The late Richard M. Linde, AIA, was a licensed architect and President of the American Institute of Architects.


Preface xiii


Chapter 1 The Office 3

The Physical Office 4

Office Practice and How It May Be Structured 4

Resource Library 6

Professional Organizations 7

Architect/Client Relationship 7

Implementation of the Construction Documents 12

Building 13

Influence of Building Information Modeling on Building Design 14

Chapter 2 Standards and Techniques, Metrification, Hand Drafting, and Computer-aided Drafting 17

Introduction to Standards and Techniques 18

Drawing Practice 18

Lettering 20

Architectural Drafting 26

Reproduction Methods 26

Office Standards 30

Metrics 35

Hand Drawing 44

Kinds of Drafting Equipment 44

Selecting and Using Drafting Pencils 48

Computer Drafting 49

Office Standards 49

A Game within a Game 67

Power of the CAD Drafter 69

Disadvantages of a Computer 72

Advantages of a Computer 73

Future of CAD 75

Conclusion 78

Chapter 3 BIM, Revit, and Human Concerns 79

Introduction 80

Human Considerations 80

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 80

Building Information Modeling (BIM) 89

Chapter 4 Sustainable/Green Architecture 107

Environmental and Human Considerations 108

Sustainable Architecture 108

Lateral Influences 109

Energy Conservation 110

Sound 112

Snow 115

Fire and Smoke 116

Temperature 119

Deterioration 120

Drainage/Rainfall 121

Underground Gas Control 123

Water Table 123

Frost Line/Frost Depth 123

Termites and Termite Treatment 125

Energy Sources 126

Future of Energy Sources 132

Chapter 5 Construction Materials and Methods 135

Building Materials 136

Wood Floor Systems 136

Wood Wall Systems 142

Wood Roof Systems 144

Concrete 149

Steel Floor System 155

Steel Stud Wall Framing System 156

Steel Decking Roof System 157

Light Steel Roof Framing System 157

Masonry Wall System 157

Composite Systems and Combinations of Materials 159

Material Selections 161

Wood as a Material 162

Concrete as a Material 166

Steel as a Material 169

Masonry as a Material 174

Chapter 6 Initial Preparation Phase for Construction Documents 177

Working Guidelines for Preparing Construction Documents 178

Making the Transition from Schematic Drawings to Construction Documents 180

Building Code Requirements 180

Primary Materials Analysis 181

Selecting the Primary Structural System 182

Requirements of Consultants 182

Regional Considerations 183

Energy Conservation 185

Interrelationship of Drawings 186

Project Management 186

Office Procedure and Planning Strategy 186

Tracking a Set of Working Drawings 188

Format/Cartoon 190

Project Book 191

Numbers—Legal, Job, Task 192

Drawing Sequence 197

Delivery Methods 208


Chapter 7 Site and Grading Plan 219

Site Analysis 220

Site Analysis Applied 222

The Topography Map 225

The Soils and Geology Map 225

The Site Plan 227

The Grading Plan 231

The Site and Grading Plan 234

The Drainage Plan 241

The Erosion and Sediment Control Plans 245

The Utility Plan 245

The Circulation Plan 246

The Landscape, Irrigation, and Drainage Plans 246

The Site Improvement Plan: An Overview 247

Size and Location 250

Chapter 8 Floor Plan 253

Types of Floor Plans 254

Symbols 268

Other Floor-plan Considerations 273

Drawing a Floor Plan with a Computer 277

Chapter 9 Foundation and Roof Plans, Floor and Roof Framing Systems 287

Foundation Introduction 288

Types of Foundations 288

Examples 295

Summary of Typical Conventions for Foundation Plan 300

Exterior and Interior Walls 304

A Steel Structure 305

Roof Plans and Framing Systems 308

Framing with Different Materials 333

Floor Framing 337

Chapter 10 Building Sections 347

Building Sections Defined 348

Drawing a Building Section 348

Types of Building Sections 351

Drafting a Building Section 356

Drafting a Building Section of a Residence 356

Chapter 11 Exterior and Interior Elevations 365

Introduction to Exterior Elevations 366

Drawing Doors and Windows 372

Material Designations 374

Notes 375

Dotted Lines 377

Controlling Factors 380

Drafting an Exterior Elevation 383

Weatherproofing 385

Drawing an Elevation with and without a Model 387

Exterior Elevation Using BIM/Revit 389

Interior Elevations 390

Dimensions and Intersections 394

Drafting an Interior Elevation: Examples 394

Computers and Interior Elevations 395

Evolution of a Set of Interior Elevations 396

Interior Elevations Using BIM/Revit 397

Chapter 12 Schedules: Door, Window, and Finish 403

Schedules Defined 404

Tabulated Schedules: Doors and Windows 404

Pictorial Schedules: Doors and Windows 405

Choosing a Tabulated or Pictorial Schedule 406

Interior Finish Schedules 406

Additional Schedules 408

Schedules as They Relate to Structural Entities 408

CAD-Generated and Computer-Drafted Schedules 409

Schedule Templates 410

Schedules Using BIM or Revit 411

Chapter 13 Architectural Details and Vertical Links (Stairs/Elevators) 421

The Purpose of Architectural Details 422

Freehand Detail Sketches 422

Using Details in Construction Documents 422

Hard-Line (Hand-Drafted and CAD) 428

Footing Detail 430

Window Detail 432

Fireplace 436

Stair Design and Vertical Links 443

Mechanical Vertical Links 447

Detailing in BIM/Revit 451

Tenant Improvement Details 452


Chapter 14 C onstruction Documents for a One-story, Conventional Wood-framed Residence 461

Conceptual Design 462

Design and Schematic Drawings 463

Evolution of the Working Drawings 467

Site Plan, Vicinity Map, Roof Plan, and Notes 467

Jadyn Residence Site Plan 471

Jadyn Residence Floor Plan 473

Jadyn Residence Roof Plan 480

Jadyn Residence Building Sections 480

Jadyn Residence Exterior Elevations 486

Jadyn Residence Foundation Plan 491

Framing a Residence 494

Jadyn Residence Roof Framing Plan 498

Jadyn Residence Interior Elevations 498

Set Check 502

Chapter 15 Construction Documents for a Two-story, Wood-framed Residence with Basement 507

Schematic Design for Blu Residence 508

Site Plan 511

First-Floor Plan 513

Second-Floor Plan 514

Roof Plan 518

Blu Residence Building Sections 518

Blu Residence Building Elevations 522

Foundation Plan: Slab and Raised Wood 529

Blu Residence Foundation Plan: Raised Wood 534

Framing Plan 537

Support Drawings for Blu Residence 541

Chapter 16 Conceptual Design and Construction Documents for a Steel and Masonry Building (Theater) 549

Introduction 550

Conceptual Design: Site and Client Requirements 550

Design Development Punch List 550

Initial Schematic Studies 550

Site Plan 554

Foundation Plan 556

Ground-Floor Plan 557

Partial Floor Plan and Interior Elevations 560

Exterior Elevations 560

Building Sections 564

Roof Plan 575

Roof Framing Plan 577

Chapter 17 Madison Steel Building 597

Introduction 598

The Madison Office Building 598

Floor-plan Design Development Phase 603

Summary 625

Chapter 18 Tenant Improvements 627

Tenant Improvement Introduction 628

Existing Buildings 628

Existing Floor Level—Building A 628

Development of Working Drawings—Building B 630

Working Drawings 642

Index 653

Appendix A Survey of Regional Differences available online at

Appendix B A Uniform System for Architectural Working Drawing available online at

Abbreviations available online at

PowerPoint presentations available online at ??$