The Handbook of Institutional Research
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Institutional research is more relevant today than ever before as growing pressures for improved student learning and increased institutional accountability motivate higher education to effectively use ever-expanding data and information resources.

As the most current and comprehensive volume on the topic, the Handbook describes the fundamental knowledge, techniques, and strategies that define institutional research. The book contains an overview of the profession and its history, examines how institutional research supports executive and academic leadership and governance, and discusses the varied ways data from federal, state, and campus sources are used by research professionals.

With contributions from leading experts in the field, this important resource reviews the analytic tools, techniques, and methodologies used by institutional researchers in their professional practice and covers a wide range of topics such as: conducting institutional research; statistical applications; comparative analyses; quality control systems; measuring student, faculty, and staff opinions; and management activities designed to improve organizational effectiveness.


Richard D. Howard is retired director of institutional research and professor of educational policy and administration at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis. He served as editor of Resources in Institutional Research.

Gerald W. McLaughlin is an associate vice president for enrollment management and marketing at DePaul University in Chicago. He has served as editor of AIR's Professional File and IR Applications.

William E. Knight is executive director of institutional effectiveness and an adjunct faculty member at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. He has been associate editor of Resources in Institutional Research.

The Association for Institutional Research (AIR) is a professional association of institutional researchers, planners, and decision makers from higher education institutions around the world. The editors have each served as AIR president.


Tables, Figures, and Exhibits xi

Appendices xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

About the Editors xxv

List of Contributors xxvii

The Association for Institutional Research xxxi


1 The History of Institutional Research 3
Donald J. Reichard

2 The Structure and Functions of Institutional Research Offices 22
J. Fredericks Volkwein, Ying (Jessie) Liu, and James Woodell

3 Practicing Institutional Research 40
Mardy T. Eimers, Jang Wan Ko, and Denise Gardner

4 The Role of Institutional Research in International Universities 57
Ann S. Ferren and Martha C. Merrill

5 Out of the Box and Out of the Office: Institutional Research for Changing Times 73
Richard A. Voorhees and Teri Hinds

6 Institutional Research and Collaborative Organizational Learning 86
Victor M. H. Borden and Adrianna Kezar

7 Developing Institutional Adaptability Using Change Management Processes 107
Kim Bender


8 Supporting Institutional Governance 133
James Purcell, Charles Harrington, and Beverly King

9 Supporting the Provost and Academic Vice President 145
James T. Posey and Gita Wijesinghe Pitter

10 Examining Faculty Recruitment, Retention, Promotion, and Retirement 165
Daniel Teodorescu

11 Institutional Planning and Resource Management 183
Michael J. Dooris and Jerome S. Rackoff

12 Building Cost Models 203
John Milam and Paul Brinkman

13 Managing College Enrollments 221
John Cheslock and Rick Kroc

14 Refocusing Student Success: Toward a Comprehensive Model 237
Gary A. Rice and Alene Bycer Russell

15 Academic Space Management and the Role of Institutional Research 256
Catherine Watt

16 Managing Sustainability 268
Josetta S. McLaughlin and Lisa M. Amoroso


17 Challenges in Meeting Demands for Accountability 299
Carol Fuller, Cathy Lebo, and John Muffo

18 Accreditation and the Changing Role of the Institutional Researcher 310
Paula S. Krist, Elizabeth A. Jones, and Kimberly Thompson

19 Regulated Ethics: Institutional Research Compliance with IRBs and FERPA 325
Rachel Dykstra Boon

20 Data, Discrimination, and the Law 340
Andrew L. Luna

21 Federal Higher Education Reporting Databases and Tools 354
Gayle M. Fink and Chad Muntz

22 Collective Responses to a New Era of Accountability in Higher Education 371
Christine M. Keller

23 System- and State-Level Data Collection Issues and Practices 386
Marsha V. Krotseng

24 Developing K–20+ State Databases 404
Maryann S. Ruddock

25 Data Exchange Consortia: Characteristics, Current Examples, and Developing a New Exchange 420
Julie Carpenter-Hubin, Rebecca Carr, and Rosemary Hayes

26 Business Intelligence and Analytics: The IR Vision for Data Administration, Reporting, Data Marts, and Data Warehousing 434
John Milam, John Porter, and John Rome


27 Analytic Approaches to Creating Planning and Decision Support Information 459
Gerald McLaughlin, Richard Howard, and Daniel Jones-White

28 Exploring and Mining Data 478
Jing Luan, Thulasi Kumar, Sutee Sujitparapitaya, and Tom Bohannon

29 Measuring Opinion and Behavior 502
Sean Simone, Corbin M. Campbell, and Daniel W. Newhart

30 Institutional Research with Published Instruments 523
Julie Noble and Richard Sawyer

31 Measuring and Evaluating Faculty Workload 550
Heather A. Kelly, Jeffrey A. Seybert, Patrick M. Rossol, and Allison M. Walters

32 Analyzing Equity in Faculty Compensation 573
Robert K. Toutkoushian and Dennis A. Kramer II

33 Effective Reporting 594
Liz Sanders and Joe Filkins

34 Tools for Setting Strategy 611
Jan W. Lyddon, Bruce E. McComb, and J. Patrick Mizak

35 Tools for Executing Strategy 625
Jan W. Lyddon, Bruce E. McComb, and J. Patrick Mizak

36 Developing Institutional Comparisons 644
Glenn W. James

37 Tools for Improving Institutional Effectiveness 656
Jonathan D. Fife and Stephen D. Spangehl

38 Tools for Measuring the Effectiveness of Institutional Research 673
Sharron Ronco, Sandra Archer, and Patricia Ryan

Epilogue 689

Name Index 695

Subject Index 707