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### More About This Title Introduction to Civil Engineering Systems

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**DR. SAMUEL LABI,** Associate Professor in Purdue University's School of Civil Engineering, has combined work experience in consulting and academia that span several decades. His influential research has received widespread recognition and accolades, including the Mather Award for best paper in concrete materials and the K.B. Woods Award for best paper in design and construction.

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### English

*Foreword xvii*

*Preface xix*

*Author Biography xxiii*

**I Introduction 1**

**1 Civil Engineering Systems and Their Evolution 3**

1.0 Introduction 3

1.1 Civil Engineering Systems and Historical Developments 3

1.2 Civil Engineering System—The Branches 8

1.3 Final Comments on the Historical Evolution and Future of Civil Engineering Systems 44

Summary 45

Exercises 45

References 46

Useful Resources 49

**2 Fundamental Concepts in Systems Engineering 50**

2.0 Introduction 50

2.1 What Is a System? 50

2.2 Systems Considerations in Civil Engineering 60

2.3 Development of Civil Engineering Systems 63

2.4 Some Terms and Concepts Related to Systems Thinking 66

2.5 Global Initiatives in the Study of Systems 68

Summary 70

Exercises 70

References 71

Useful Resources 72

**3 Goals and Objectives of Civil Engineering Systems 74**

3.0 Introduction 74

3.1 Hierarchy of Desired Outcomes: Values, Goals, and Objectives 75

3.2 Common MOEs Used in Decision Making at Any Phase of System Development 82

3.3 Goals and MOEs at Each Phase of Civil Engineering Systems Development 91

3.4 Desired Properties of a Set of MOEs for a Given Analysis 95

3.5 Overall Discussion of Engineering Systems Goals and Objectives 95

Summary 96

Exercises 97

References 98

Useful Resources 98

**II The Tasks at Each Phase of Systems Development 99**

**4 Tasks within the Phases of Systems Development 101**

4.0 Introduction 101

4.1 The Task of Description 103

4.2 Traditional Tasks of Analyzing Systems in Civil Engineering 111

4.3 The Task of System Evaluation 113

4.4 The Task of Feedback between Phases 117

4.5 Examples of Tasks at Each Phase of Systems Development 118

Summary 123

Exercises 123

References 124

**III Tools Needed to Carry Out the Tasks 125**

**5 Probability 127**

5.0 Introduction 127

5.1 Set Theory 129

5.2 Some Basic Concepts in Probability 132

5.3 Random Variables 140

5.4 Probability Functions 142

5.5 Discrete Probability Distributions 149

5.6 Continuous Probability Distributions 157

5.7 Common Terminology in Probabilistic Analysis 159

Summary 161

Exercises 162

References 164

Useful Resources 164

**6 Statistics 165**

6.0 Introduction 165

6.1 Population and Sampling 168

6.2 Descriptive Statistics 171

6.3 Inferential Statistics 177

6.4 Hypothesis Testing 189

6.5 Some Common Terminology and Concepts in Engineering Statistics 197

Summary 197

Exercises 198

References 200

Useful Resources 200

**7 Modeling 201**

7.0 Introduction 201

7.1 Steps for Developing Statistical Models 201

7.2 Model Specifications in Statistical Modeling 215

7.3 Some Important Issues in Statistical Modeling 228

7.4 Glossary of Modeling Terms 234

Exercises 235

References 238

Useful Resources 239

**8 Simulation 240**

8.0 Introduction 240

8.1 Simulation Terminology 243

8.2 Categories of Simulation 244

8.3 Random Number Generation 247

8.4 Monte Carlo Simulation 255

Summary 263

Exercises 264

References 265

Useful Resources 266

**9 Optimization 267**

9.0 Introduction 267

9.1 Unconstrained Optimization Using Calculus 276

9.2 Constrained Optimization Using Calculus 281

9.3 Constrained Optimization Using Mathematical Programming Techniques 283

9.4 Constrained Optimization Involving Binary Decision Variables 300

9.5 Search for the Optimal Solution—Quicker and Efficient Techniques 307

9.6 Discussions and Final Comments 313

Summary 316

Exercises 316

References 320

**10 Cost Analysis 321**

10.0 Introduction 321

10.1 System Cost Classifications 321

10.2 Costs Incurred by System Owner/Operator 327

10.3 Costs Incurred by the System User 328

10.4 Costs Incurred by the Community 335

10.5 System Costs Categorized by Phase of System Development 338

10.6 Average and Marginal Cost Concepts 341

10.7 Cost Estimation at the Construction Phase 343

10.8 Issues in Systems Costing 353

Summary 362

Exercises 363

References 365

Useful Resources 367

**11 Economic Analysis 368**

11.0 Introduction 368

11.1 Basic Concepts in Economic Analysis 369

11.2 Interest Formulas (or Equivalence Equations) 375

11.3 Criteria for Economic Analysis 380

11.4 Discussion of Relative Merits of the Economic Efficiency Criteria 385

11.5 Effect of Evaluation Parameters on the Evaluation Outcome 390

11.6 Effect of Analysis Period on Systems Evaluation 395

11.7 Perpetuity Considerations 397

11.8 Some Key Considerations in Monetary LCCA 398

11.9 Economic Efficiency Analysis—Issues and Limitations 399

Summary 403

Exercises 403

References 405

Useful Resources 406

**12 Multiple-Criteria Analysis 407**

12.0 Introduction 407

12.1 Framework for MCDM Analysis Using Multiattribute Utility Theory 410

12.2 Establishing the Weights of Decision Criteria 416

12.3 Scaling of the Decision Criteria 420

12.4 Amalgamation 428

12.5 Prefrence versus Nonpreference Approaches for Weighting, Scaling, or Amalgamation (WSA) 443

Summary 445

Exercises 445

References and Resources 447

Useful Resources 448

Appendix 12.1 449

**13 Risk and Reliability 450**

13.0 Introduction 450

13.1 Certainty, Risk, and Uncertainty 451

13.2 Uncertainties in System Development 452

13.3 The Management of Risks and Uncertainties 454

13.4 The Basics of Reliability 459

13.5 Common Contexts of Reliability Analysis in Civil Engineering 462

13.6 Laboratory and Field Testing of System Reliability 482

13.7 Reliability-Based Design of Civil Engineering Systems 483

13.8 System Reliability and System Resilience 484

Summary 486

Exercises 487

References 488

Useful Resources 490

**14 System Dynamics 491**

14.0 Introduction 491

14.1 Some Basic Concepts In System Dynamics 492

14.2 Variable versus Time (VVT) Patterns in System Dynamics Modeling 494

14.3 Causal Loop Diagrams (the Concept of Feedback) 496

14.4 Stocks and Flows 498

14.5 Framework for Systems Dynamics Analysis 501

14.6 Some Past Applications of Systems Dynamics at Civil System Development Phases 502

14.7 Chaos Theory 503

Summary 504

Exercises 504

References 505

Useful Resources 505

**15 Real Options Analysis 507**

15.0 Introduction 507

15.1 Real Options Taxonomy 511

15.2 Categories of Real Options 512

15.3 Valuing Flexibility in Real Options Analysis 517

15.4 Real Options Case Examples in Civil Engineering 522

15.5 Numerical Example 524

Summary 526

Exercises 526

References 527

Useful Resources 528

**16 Decision Analysis 529**

16.0 Introduction 529

16.1 General Contexts of Decision Making 529

16.2 Basic Process of Decision Making and Relevant Tools 530

16.3 Classification of Decision Models 531

16.4 Decision Making Associated with Uncertainty 533

16.5 Inputs for Uncertainty-Based Decision Making 535

16.6 Decisions under Risk 536

16.7 Decisions under Uncertainty 541

16.8 Other Techniques for Modeling Decisions 546

16.9 Impact of Decision-Maker’s Risk Preferences on Decision Making 547

Summary 548

Exercises 548

References 549

**17 Network Analysis Tools 550**

17.0 Introduction 550

17.1 Fundamentals of Graph Theory 551

17.2 Trees, Spanning Trees, and Minimum Spanning Trees 554

17.3 Shortest Path through a Network 557

17.4 Maximum Flow Problem 560

17.5 Locating Facilities on Civil Engineering Networks 561

17.6 Network Connectivity 564

17.7 Optimal Coverage of Networks 568

17.8 Optimal Shipping across Origin–Destination (O–D) Pairs in a Network 573

17.9 Network Applications in Project Management 582

Summary 587

Exercises 587

References 592

Useful Resources 594

**18 Queuing Analysis 595**

18.0 Introduction 595

18.1 Attributes of a Queuing Process 596

18.2 Performance of Queuing Processes 600

18.3 Role of Markov Chains in Queuing Analysis 601

18.4 Notations for Describing Queuing Processes 602

18.5 Analysis of Selected Queuing Process Configurations 603

18.6 Concluding Remarks on Queuing Analysis 609

Summary 611

Exercises 611

References 613

Useful Resources 613

**IV The Phases of Systems Development 615**

**19 The Needs Assessment Phase 617**

19.0 Introduction 617

19.1 Assessment of System Needs 619

19.2 Mechanisms for Assessing System Needs 627

19.3 Assessing System Needs Using User-Targeted Mechanisms 628

19.4 Assessing Long-Term System Needs via Demand and Supply Trends 629

19.5 Optimal Scheduling of Supply—Mathematical Derivations 635

19.6 Some Issues and Considerations in Needs Assessment 642

Summary 648

Exercises 648

References 649

Useful Resources 650

**20 Systems Planning 651**

20.0 Introduction 651

20.1 Brief History of Civil Systems Planning 652

20.2 Dimensions (Perspectives) of Civil System Planning 652

20.3 Rationale and Impetus for System Planning 656

20.4 Evolving and Emerging Contexts of Systems Planning 657

20.5 Principles of Civil Systems Planning 659

20.6 System Planning Process 662

20.7 Barriers to Effective Planning 669

20.8 Computations in Civil Systems Planning 670

Summary 675

Exercises 675

References 677

Useful Resources 678

**21 System Design 679**

21.0 Introduction 679

21.1 Classifications of Engineering Design 680

21.2 Engineering Design Process 682

21.3 Applications of Systems Design in Selected Areas of Civil Engineering 694

21.4 Considerations in Civil Engineering Systems Design 697

21.5 Design Failures in Civil Engineering 701

21.6 Some Design Computations 703

Summary 706

Exercises 707

References 709

Useful Resources 711

**22 Systems Construction 712**

22.0 Introduction 712

22.1 Stages of the System Construction Phase 714

22.2 Project Delivery Options and Contracting Approaches 717

22.3 Construction Cost Analysis 722

22.4 General Decision Contexts in Construction That Merit Application of Systems Concepts 726

22.5 Managing Risks at the Construction Phase 739

22.6 Emerging and Evolving Issues in Civil Systems Construction 748

Summary 750

Exercises 751

References 752

Useful Resources 756

**23 System Operations 757**

23.0 Introduction 757

23.1 Definition 757

23.2 General Duties at the Operations Phase 760

23.3 Some Problem Contexts at the Operations Phase of Selected Types of Civil Engineering (CE) Systems 761

23.4 Numerical Examples of Application of Tools in CE System Operations 763

Summary 778

Exercises 778

References 781

Useful Resources 781

**24 System Monitoring 784**

24.0 Introduction 784

24.1 Basic Elements of System Monitoring 784

24.2 Purposes of System Monitoring 785

24.3 Typical Architecture of a System Monitoring Program 791

24.4 Sensing and Detection Mechanisms 793

24.5 Cost-Effective Reliability-based Sampling for System Monitoring 798

24.6 Monitoring of Specific Civil Engineering Systems 800

24.7 Planning for System Monitoring/Inspection (M/I) 803

24.8 Monitoring the System Users 807

Summary 809

Exercises 810

References 811

Useful Resources 813

**25 System Preservation (Maintenance and Rehabilitation) 815**

25.0 Introduction 815

25.1 Basic Terminologies in System Preservation 820

25.2 Specific Tasks at the System Preservation Phase 823

25.3 Identifying the Appropriate Preservation Treatment at a Given Time 845

25.4 Development of System Preservation Schedules 848

25.5 Impediments to the Prescription of Preservation Treatments or and Schedules 852

25.6 Concluding Remarks 852

Summary 853

Exercises 854

References 855

Useful Resources 856

**26 System End of Life 858**

26.0 Introduction 858

26.1 System Life Definitions 858

26.2 End of Physical Life—The Causes 862

26.3 Applications of Life Estimates in Systems Management 865

26.4 Predicting the Longevity of Civil Engineering Systems 866

26.5 Quantifying System Vulnerability to Destruction 880

26.6 End-of-Life Options 881

26.7 Feedback to Preceding Phases 882

26.8 Typical Life Expectancies of Common Civil Engineering Systems 883

26.9 Concluding Remarks 884

Summary 884

Exercises 885

References 886

Useful Resources 887

**V Other Topics Related to Civil Systems Development 889**

**27 Threats, Exposure, and System Resilience 891**

27.0 Introduction 891

27.1 Categories of Threats to Civil Engineering Systems 893

27.2 Threat Types 894

27.3 The Threat of Climate Change 901

27.4 Exposure to Threats 907

27.5 Resilience of Civil Engineering Systems 908

27.6 Combining Threat Likelihood, Public Exposure, and System Resilience for Decision Making 918

Summary 923

Exercises 923

References 925

Useful Resources 927

**28 Sustainability 929**

28.0 Introduction 929

28.1 Motivations for the Drive toward Sustainability in the Current Era 934

28.2 Principles of Sustainability 935

28.3 Evolution of Global Policy on Sustainability 938

28.4 Elements of Sustainability 939

28.5 Combined Indicators of Sustainability 947

28.6 Dimensions of Sustainability 950

28.7 Systems Concepts in Sustainability Modeling 950

28.8 Sustainability Considerations at Each Phase of System Development 953

28.9 Modeling the Impact of Human Actions on Sustainability 957

28.10 Incorporating Sustainability into Project—And Network-Level Evaluation 962

28.11 Specific Sustainability Considerations in Civil Engineering Disciplines 962

28.12 Sustainability—Some Interesting Finales of the Discussion 964

Summary 967

Exercises 968

References 969

Useful Resources 972

**29 Ethics and Legal Issues in Civil Systems Development 973**

29.0 Introduction 973

29.1 Ethics in Civil Systems Development 975

29.2 Legal Issues in Civil Systems Development 988

Summary 1000

Exercises 1000

References 1001

Useful Resources 1003

**30 Epilogue 1004**

Appendix 1: Common Probability Distributions 1009

Appendix 2: Standard Normal Curve and Student t Distribution 1011

Appendix 3: Approximate Unit Costs of Some Civil Engineering Systems 1014

Appendix 4: Compound Interest Factors for 5% Interest Rate 1016

*Index 1019*