Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments
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More About This Title Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments


A much-needed reference to the latest thinking in universal design

Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments offers a comprehensive survey of best practices and innovative solutions in universal design. Written by top thinkers at the Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA), it demonstrates the difference between universal design and accessibility and identifies its relationship to sustainable design and active living. Hundreds of examples from all areas of design illustrate the practical application of this growing field. Complete, in-depth coverage includes:

• The evolution of universal design, from its roots in the disability rights movement to present-day trends

• How universal design can address the needs of an aging population without specialization or adaptation to reduce the need for expensive and hard-to-find specialized products and services

• Design practices for human performance, health and wellness, and social participation

• Strategies for urban and landscape design, housing, interior design, product design, and transportation

Destined to become the standard professional reference on the subject, Universal Design: Creating Inclusive Environments is an invaluable resource for architects, interior designers, urban planners, landscape architects, product designers, and anyone with an interest in how we access, use, and enjoy the environment.


Edward Steinfeld is a Professor of Architecture at the University at Buffalo, State University of New York, and Director of the Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA), a leading center for research and development in universal design in North America

Jordana L. Maisel is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the School of Architecture and Urban Planning at the University at Buffalo, State University if New York, and Director of Outreach and Policy Studies at the Center for Inclusive Design and Environmental Access (IDeA).


Foreword xi

Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xvii

CHAPTER 1: Barriers and their Social Meaning  1

Design as Evolution 1

Barriers as a Universal Experience 3

Barriers in Intellectual Life 4

Social Functions of Space 8

Socio-spatial Order 12

Origins of Universal Design 15

Summary 24

Review Topics 24

References 24

CHAPTER 2: Defining Universal Design  27

Introduction 27

Emergence of Universal Design 27

Definition 28

Origins 30

Modernism and the Modernist Style 31

Critiques of Modernist Style 33

Return to Human-Centered Design 34

Summary 42

Review Topics 42

References 42

CHAPTER 3: The New Demographics  45

Demography for Universal Design 45

Uses of Demography in Design 48

Benefi ciaries of Universal Design 49

Demography: Points to Remember 60

Summary 62

Review Topics 63

References 63

CHAPTER 4: Practicing Universal Design  67

Introduction 67

Universal Design as Innovation 67

Tools for Increasing Adoption 70

Introducing Universal Design to Practice 82

Improving Practice 86

Summary 91

Review Topics 91

References 92

CHAPTER 5: Design for Human Performance  95

Introduction 95

Anthropometry 96

Biomechanics 103

Perception 108

Cognition 119

Summary 129

Review Topics 132

References 132

CHAPTER 6: Design For Health and Wellness137

Introduction 137

What are Health and Wellness? 139

Injury Protection 140

Disease Prevention 142

Low-Resource Settings 147

Mental Health 149

Health Impact Assessments 152

Designing for Health and Wellness Guidelines 152

Summary 153

Review Topics 153

References 153

CHAPTER 7: Design for Social Participation 159

Introduction 159

Social Construction Theory 160

Interpersonal Interaction 163

Access to Resources 167

Segregation and Clustering 172

Design Participation 177

Summary 181

Review Topics 185

References 185

CHAPTER 8: Public Accommodations 187

Introduction 187

The Purpose of Accessible Design 188

Universal Design Strategies 197

The Future 213

Summary 214

Review Topics 220

References 220

CHAPTER 9: Housing223

Evolution of Accessible Housing Policy 223

Community-Based Rehabilitation and Special-Purpose Housing 236

Neighborhood Context 238

Summary 242

Review Topics


References 244

CHAPTER 10: Home Modifications 245
Danise Levine

Introduction 245

Target Populations 246

Purpose of Home Modifications 248

Common Needs and Solutions 253

Home Assessments 261

Barriers to Service Delivery 263

Policy 265

Knowledge Needs 268

Summary 269

Review Topics 270

References 271

CHAPTER 11: Universal Design and the Interior Environment 275

Mary Jane Carroll

Introduction 275

Wayfinding 276

Acoustics 279

Lighting 282

Color 287

Furnishings 292

Floor Coverings 299

Summary 302

Review Topics 304

References 304

CHAPTER 12: Product Design307

Heamchand Subryan

Introduction 307

Assistive Technology 310

Knowledge Translation Problem 312

Changing Marketplace 316

Smarter Products 321

Case Studies 327

Summary 334

Review Topics 335

References 335

CHAPTER 13: Public Transportation and Universal Design 339

Introduction 339

Background 339

Access to Public Transportation 340

Components of Public Transportation Systems 342

Progress around the World 362

Summary 363

Review Topics 364

References 365



"Universal Design introduces designers to the principles and practice of designing for all people. Covering best practice examples that demonstrate the value of universal design, this new publication is sure to be constantly at the fingertips of all types of designers." (ASID Icon, Summer 2012)