The Evolution of Management Thought, 6th Edition
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More About This Title The Evolution of Management Thought, 6th Edition


The sixth edition of author Daniel Wren's classic text provides a comprehensive understanding of the origin and development of ideas in management.  This text traces the evolution of management thought from its earliest days to the present, by examining the backgrounds, ideas and influences of its major contributors. 

Every chapter in the sixth edition of The Evolution of Management Thought has been thoroughly reviewed and updated to convey an appreciation of the people and ideas underlying the development of management theory and practice.  The authors’ intent is to place various theories of management in their historical context, showing how they’ve changed over time.  The text does this in a chronological framework, yet each part is designed as a separate and self-contained unit of study; substantial cross-referencing provides the opportunity for connecting earlier to later developments as a central unifying theme.


Daniel A. Wren, Ph.D., the University of Illinois, is David Ross Boyd Professor of Management Emeritus and Curator of the Harry W. Bass Business History Collection at the University of Oklahoma. He has served as President of the Southern Management Association, Chairman of the Management History Division of the Academy of Management, is a Fellow of the Southern Management Association, as well as of the Academy of Management. He has been honored with the Merrick Foundation Award for teaching excellence and the Distinguished Educator Award from the national Academy of Management for his contributions “as the foremost management historian of his generation.” His research has appeared in numerous scholarly journals.

Arthur G. Bedeian, DBA, is a Boyd Professor and the Ralph and Kacoo Olinde Distinguished Professor of Management at LouisianaStateUniversity and A&MCollege.  A past President of the Academy of Management and former Dean of the Academy’s Fellows Group, he has also served as President of the Foundation for Administrative Research, the Allied Southern Business Association, the Southern Management Association, and the Southeastern Institute for Decision Sciences. He is a Fellow of both the Southern Management Association and the International Academy of Management. He is a recipient of the Academy of Management’s Distinguished Service Award, Ronald G. Greenwood Lifetime Achievement Award, and Richard M. Hodgetts Distinguished Career Award.


About the Authors xxiii

Preface xxv

Part I EarlyManagement Thought 1

Chapter 1 A Prologue to the Past 3

A Cultural Framework 5

The Economic Facet 6

The Social Facet 7

The Political Facet 7

The Technological Facet 8

People,Management, and Organizations 9

The Human Being 10

Organizations and Management 11

Summary 12

Chapter 2 Management before Industrialization 13

Management in Early Civilizations 13

The Near East 13

The Far East 14

Egypt 16

The Hebrews 17

Greece 17

Rome 20

The Catholic Church 20

Feudalism and The Middle Ages 21

The Revival of Commerce 22

The Cultural Rebirth 25

The Protestant Ethic 25

A Criticism of The Weberian Thesis 28

Modern Support for Weber 29

The Liberty Ethic 31

The Market Ethic 33

Summary 37

Chapter 3 The Industrial Revolution: Problems and Perspective 39

The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain 39

The Steam Engine 40

Management: The Fourth Factor of Production 42

Management Problems in the Early Factory 43

The Labor Problem 44

Recruitment 45

Training 45

Discipline and Motivation 46

The Search for Managerial Talent 50

Management Functions in the Early Factory 52

Cultural Consequences of the Industrial Revolution 55

The Condition of The Worker 55

Child and Female Labor 57

Summary 60

Chapter 4 Management Pioneers in the Early Factory 61

Robert Owen: The Search for a New Harmony 61

Early Managerial Experiences 61

The Call for Reform 64

Charles Babbage: The

Irascible Genius 66

The First Computer 67

Analyzing Industrial Operations 69

Andrew Ure: Pioneering in Management Education 70

Principles of Manufacturing 71

Charles Dupin: Industrial

Education in France 73

The Pioneers: A Final Note 75

Summary 76

Chapter 5 The Industrial Revolution in the United States 77

Antebellum Industry and Management 77

Early Industrial Development 78

The American System of Manufactures 81

The Railroads: Pioneering in U.S. Management 83

The Communication Revolution 83

The Age of Rails 84

Daniel Mccallum: System and Organization 85

Henry V. Poor: A Broader view of Management 88

Emerging Governance Issues 90

Summary 93

Chapter 6 Industrial Growth and Systematic Management 95

The Growth of U.S. Enterprise 95

The Accumulation of Resources 95

Carnegie and the Growth of Enterprise 97

The Renaissance of Systematic Management 99

Engineers and Economists 100

The Labor Question 104

Big Business and Its Changing

Environment 107

Business and Society: Barons or Benefactors? 107

Business and Labor: the Condition of the Worker 111

Inventive and Innovative Impulses 112

Business and Government: The Seeds of Reform 114

Summary of Part I 115

Part II The Scientific Management Era 119

Chapter 7 The Advent of Scientific Management 121

Frederick Winslow Taylor: The Early Years 122

Taylor at Midvale 123

The Search for Science in Management 125

The Quest for Improved Incentives 126

The Task-Management System 130

Taylor: The Manager and the Consultant 133

Taylor: The Peripatetic Philosopher 138

The Eastern Rate Case 140

Watertown and the Congressional Investigation 142

The Mental Revolution 148

Taylor and the Human Factor 152

Summary 154

Chapter 8 Spreading the Gospel of Efficiency 157

The Most Orthodox: Carl Barth 157

The Most Unorthodox: H. L. Gantt 159

The Task and Bonus System 159

The Habits of Industry 161

Graphic Aids to Management 162

Gantt: The Later Years 164

Partners for Life: The Gilbreths 166

Nothing Succeeds Like 168

And So, Into Scientific Management 169

Support for the Scientific-Management Movement 171

The First Lady of Management 173

Efficiency through Organization: Harrington Emerson 178

Line and Staff Organization 179

Principles of Efficiency 180

The Gospel in Public-Sector Organizations: Morris L. Cooke 182

Boxly Talks 183

Public Administration 185

Summary 187

Chapter 9 The Human Factor: Preparing the Way 189

Personnel Management: A Dual Heritage 190

Personnel as Welfare Work 190

Scientific Management and Personnel 192

Psychology and the Individual 196

Toward Scientific Psychology 197

The Birth of Industrial Psychology 197

Foundations of the Social Person:

Theory, Research, and Practice 200

The Antecedents of Industrial Sociology 200

Some Early Empirical Investigations 204

The ‘‘Democratization of theWorkplace’’ 205

The Trade Union Movement 205

The Changing Nature of Union–Management Cooperation 207

Summary 210

Chapter 10 The Emergence of the Management Process and Organization Theory 211

Henri Fayol: The Man and His Career 211

The Need for Management Theory 215

The Principles of Management 216

The Elements of Management 221

Planning 221

Organizing 223

Command, Coordination, and Control 225

A Final Note 227

Bureaucracy: MaxWeber 228

Bureaucracy as the Ideal 229

The Advantages of Bureaucracy 231

The Disadvantages of Bureaucracy 232

Summary 233

Chapter 11 Scientific Management in Theory and Practice 235

The Study and Practice of Scientific Management 235

Education for Industrial Management 236

The International Scientific Management Movement 239

Europe 239

Japan 243

Scientific Management in Industrial Practice 244

The Hoxie Report 246

The Thompson and Nelson Studies 249

Emerging General Management 252

The Impact of Scientific Management on Other Disciplines 252

Early Organization Theory 253

Scientific Management at Du Pont and General Motors 255

Business Policy and Philosophy 257

Summary 259

Chapter 12 Scientific Management in Retrospect 261

The Economic Environment: From the Farm to the Factory 261

The Rationalization of Resource Utilization 262

Management and The Worker 263

Technology: Opening New Horizons 266

The Social Environment: From Achievement to Affiliation 270

The Collision Effect 271

The Social Gospel 273

The Political Environment: From

One Roosevelt to Another 275

Scientific Management and The Progressives 275

Business and The Progressives 277

Summary of Part II 278

Part III The Social Person Era 281

Chapter 13 The Hawthorne Studies 283

The Hawthorne Studies Begin 284

Illumination Study (1924–1927) 284

Relay-Assembly Test

Room Study (1927–1932) 285

The Interviewing Program (1925–1932) 291

Bank-Wiring Observation Room Study (1931–1932) 294

Organizations as Social Systems 297

Human Relations, Leadership, and Motivation 299

Human Relations and Human Collaboration 300

Anomie and Social Disorganization 302

Developing the Human Relations Leader 303

Human Relations and Motivation 304

Summary 306

Chapter 14 The Search for Organizational Integration 309

Mary P. Follett: The Political

Philosopher 309

The Group Principle 311

Conflict Resolution 312

The Business Philosopher 315

Authority and Power 316

The Task of leadership 318

A Final Note 321

Chester I. Barnard: The Erudite Executive 322

The Nature of Cooperative Systems 323

Formal Organizations: Theory and Structure 324

The Acceptance Theory of Authority 326

The Functions of the Executive 327

Summary 331

Chapter 15 People and Organizations 333

People at Work: The Micro View 333

Developing Constructs for Group Analysis 334

The Growth of Human-Relations Research and Training 337

Changing Assumptions about People at Work 339

People and Motivation 339

Job Enlargement 342

Participation in Decision Making 343

Leadership: Combining People and Production 345

People at Work: The Macro View 347

The Search for Fusion 347

New Tools for Macro Analysis 349

Summary 352

Chapter 16 Organizations and People 353

Organizations: Structure and Design 353

James D. Mooney: The Affable Irishman 354

Texts, Teachers, and Trends 357

Building Blocks for Administrative Theory 361

Span of Control 363

Toward a Top-Management

Viewpoint 365

Ralph C. Davis: Pater Familiae et Magister 365

Harry Hopf: Toward the Optimum 368

Analyzing Top Management 369

Ownership and Control 371

Invisible and Visible Hands 372

Summary 373

Chapter 17 Human Relations in Concept and Practice 375

The Impact of Human Relations on Teaching and Practice 375

Extending and Applying Human Relations 376

Organized Labor and Human Relations 377

Hawthorne Revisited 379

The Premises of an Industrial Civilization 379

The Research Methods and Results 382

Summary 385

Chapter 18 The Social Person Era in Retrospect 387

The Economic Environment: From Depression to Prosperity 387

Attempts at Economic Recovery 388

The Grassroots and Bottom-Up Movement 390

Organization as the Answer 390

Seeds of Change: The New Technologies 391

The Social Environment: The Social Ethic and the Organization Man 393

Shifting Social Values 394

The Confusion of Souls 396

The Social Ethic 397

The Political Environment: From

FDR to Eisenhower 400

The New Deal 400

Augmenting the Position of Labor 401

Summary of Part III 403

Part IV The Modern Era 407

Chapter 19 Management Theory and Practice 409

The Renaissance of General Management 409

Fayol’s Intellectual Heirs 410

Management Education: Challenges and Responses 412

The ‘‘Management Theory Jungle’’ 413

Other Views of Managerial Work 415

Management Theory and Practice 419

Drucker: The Guru of Management Practice 423

From Business Policy to Strategic Management 425

Markets and Hierarchies 425

Governance and Agency Issues 427

Management as an Integrating and Innovating Task 429

Strategy and Views of the Firm 431

Strategic Leadership and Evolutionary Dynamics 434

Summary 437

Chapter 20 Organizational Behavior and Organization Theory 439

People and Organizations 439

Human Relations and Organizational Behavior 440

Theories X AND Y 442

Personnel/Human Resources Management and Industrial Relations 445

Work Design 447

Motivation 450

Leadership 454

Organizations and People 461

Organizations as Open Systems 462

Behavioral Theories of the Firm 464

Economic and Business Theories of the Firm 466

The Paradigm Wars 467

Strategy and Structure 467

Summary 469

Chapter 21 Science and Systems in Management 471

The Quest for Science in Management 471

Operations Research 472

Production Management in Transition 474

Old Lessons Relearned 476

Systems and Information 482

General Systems Theory 482

From The Invisible Hand to The Digital Hand 483

Summary 487

Chapter 22 Obligations and Opportunities 489

Individuals and Organizations: Relating to Evolving Expectations 489

Ethics 490

Business and Society 493

Management Opportunities in a Global Arena 498

The Globalization of Business 498

Managing across Cultures 501

Summary 504

Chapter 23 Epilogue 507

Name Index 511

Subject Index 523