Supervision for Today's Schools
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More About This Title Supervision for Today's Schools

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A highly respected overview of the field of instructional supervision that covers the three domains of supervision: instructional development, curriculum development, and staff development. The authors adhere to the beliefs that supervisors should look at teaching before looking at the teacher, and that the supervisor should look at the classroom and school environment within the context of instruction. Continuing in approach and philosophy as previous editions, the Eighth Edition will continue to lean toward practice, with heavy emphasis on the supervisor's responsibilities as an instructor.

English

Peter F. Oliva is Professor Emeritus at Florida International University and Georgia Southern University. He has served on the faculties of the University of Mississippi, the University of Florida, Indiana State University, Southern Illinois University, and the University of Hawaii. As adjunct instructor, he has supervised interns at the University of Central Florida. He has published numerous articles in education journals and is author of several textbooks in the fields of instruction, supervision, and curriculum, including Developing the Curriculum. He has traveled extensively in Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. He is a member of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Phi Delta Kappa, the National Education Association, and Phi Beta Kappa. He holds an A.B. degree from Cornell University; an M.A.T. from Harvard University; and Ed.D. from Teachers College, Columbia University.

Since the publication of the 6th edition, George Pawlas was appointed to a special principal task force sponsored by the National Association of Secondary School Principals. The task force is charged with making recommendations to strengthen principal preparation programs. Dr. Pawlas is known as the "supervisor" proponent in the programs. In addition, he has been contacted by the Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation to update two publications he and a colleague co-authored in the 1989 Elementary Principal series: The Principal and Communication and The Principal and Discipline. He will also revise another publication in the series: The Principal and Supervision. All three of these publications' topics are part of Supervison for Today's Schools.

English

Preface vi

PART I NATURE OF SUPERVISION 1

CHAPTER1 ROLES OF THE SCHOOL SUPERVISOR 3

Supervision Defined 3

Historical Approaches 4

Varying Interpretations 10

Problems That Complicate the Supervisory Role 11

Continuing Diversity of Conceptions of Supervision 11

Differing Conceptions of Effective Teaching 12

Mandates from the State and National Levels 13

Tensions between Teachers and Administrators/Supervisors 13

Who Are the Supervisors? 14

Types of Supervisors 15

Tasks of Supervision 19

A Model of Supervision 20

Domains of Supervision 22

Varying Roles 23

Foundations of Supervision 24

CHAPTER 2 ISSUES IN SUPERVISION 32

Numerous Unresolved Issues 32

Issues in Supervision 35

ISSUE 1: Is Supervision Necessary? 37

Limitations of Teaching 38

Need for the Supervisor 38

ISSUE 2: For Whom Should Supervision Be Provided? 40

Teacher Experience and Teacher Effectiveness 40

Subject-Centered Teachers versus Learner-Centered Teachers 41

Teachers Who Are Ineffective and Know It 42

Teacher Burnout 42

Supervision for All Teachers 43

ISSUE 3: Should the Supervisor’s Authority Be Based on Expertise and Interpersonal Relationships or on Conferred Status and Decision-Making Responsibilities? 44

ISSUE 4: Should the Supervisor Be an Administrator? 46

ISSUE 5: Is Supervision Staff Development? 50

ISSUE 6: Is Supervision Curriculum Development? 51

ISSUE 7: Is Supervision Evaluation? 53

ISSUE 8: Should Supervisors Work with Groups of Teachers or with Individual Teachers? 55

ISSUE 9: Should Supervision Be Carried Out by Supervisors Based in the Central Office or in the Individual School? 57

State Level 57

Intermediate Level 58

Local School Districts 61

ISSUE 10: Should the Supervisor Use a Directive or Nondirective Approach? 65

ISSUE 11: Should School Systems Organize for Supervision by Employing Generalists or Specialists? 68

Characteristics of Generalists and Specialists 69

Need for Specialists 71

Some Parallels 72

ISSUE 12: Should There Be National Professional Standards for Teachers? 72

ISSUE 13: What Should Be the Role of Technology in the Supervisory Process? 74

ISSUE 14: Should Multiculturalism Be a Focus of Supervision? 76

PART II LEADERSHIP IN INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 85

CHAPTER 3 HELPING TEACHERS PLAN FOR INSTRUCTION 87

Models of Instruction 87

Simplified Model 89

Classroom Planning: A Six-Point Program 89

Following a Systematic Approach to Instructional Design 90

Following a Model of Instruction 92

Writing Instructional Goals and Objectives 93

Applying Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives 99

Describing and Analyzing Learning Tasks 105

Multiple Intelligences 113

Organizing Instructional Plans 114

CHAPTER 4 HELPING TEACHERS PRESENT INSTRUCTION 125

What Is Effective Teaching? 125

Steps in Implementation 127

Selection of Resources 128

Selection of Strategies 130

Lesson Presentation 137

Beginning the Lesson 138

Moving through the Middle of the Lesson—Teaching to the Objectives (T2O) 142

Closing the Lesson 154

A Checklist 156

A Checklist for Lesson Presentation 156

CHAPTER 5 HELPING TEACHERS WITH CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT 164

Discipline: A Serious Problem 164

Causes of Behavior Problems 167

Causes Originating with the Child 169

Causes Originating with the Child’s Group 171

Causes Originating with the Teacher 172

Causes Originating with the School 174

Causes Originating with the Home and Community 177

Causes Originating in the Larger Social Order 178

Preventing Behavior Problems 179

Analyze Attitudes 179

Analyze Teaching Styles and Students’ Learning Styles 180

Analyze the Classroom Environment 182

Analyze the Curriculum Continuously 182

Analyze the Methods of Instruction Employed 182

Gather as Much Information as Possible about Individual Learners 183

Analyze the Disciplinary Models Used 184

Set and Enforce Minimum Expectations of Behavior 186

Correcting Behavior Problems 187

Ten Reasonable Punishments 192

Corporal Punishment 197

CHAPTER 6 HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE INSTRUCTION 208

Evaluation: An Essential Phase 208

Preassessment 209

Continuing Assessment 210

Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Measurement 212

Norm-Referenced Measurement 213

Criterion-Referenced Measurement 215

Relation of Evaluation to Objectives 216

Formative and Summative Evaluation 218

Testing 219

State Assessments 222

National Assessments 222

Teacher-Made Tests 223

Evaluating Affective Objectives 239

Other Evaluation Techniques 240

Observation of Class Participation 240

Oral Reports 240

Written Assignments 242

Portfolio Assessment 242

Creative Assignments 243

Group Work 243

Self-Evaluation and Joint Evaluation 243

Marking Student Achievement 246

Reporting Student Achievement 249

PART III LEADERSHIP IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 259

CHAPTER 7 HELPING TEACHERS PLAN AND IMPLEMENT CURRICULA 261

A Model for Curriculum Development 261

The Supervisor in Curriculum Development 265

Approaches to Curriculum Development 266

Planning 266

The Comprehensive Approach 266

The Problem-Centered Approach 278

Design of the Plan 280

Involvement of Others 281

Continuing Problems of Curriculum Development 281

Scope of the Curriculum 282

Sequence of the Curriculum 286

Balance in the Curriculum 288

Organization of the Curriculum 290

Curricular Reform 291

Controversial Problems 291

Implementation and Evaluation 292

CHAPTER 8 HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE CURRICULA 298

Curriculum Evaluation: Essential and Difficult 298

The Supervisor’s Role in Evaluation 301

Research Orientation 302

Basic Research Concepts 303

Types of Research 307

Teacher Participation in Research 308

Types of Evaluation 309

Evaluation Models 309

Conducting a Curriculum Needs Assessment 312

The Delphi Technique 315 

Evaluative Criteria 316

Curriculum Mapping 318

Evaluation of Materials and Studies 318

State Assessment Programs 321

Local Assessment Programs 322

PART IV LEADERSHIP IN STAFFDEVELOPMENT 329

CHAPTER 9 HELPING TEACHERS THROUGH IN-SERVICE PROGRAMS 331

Supervision and Staff Development 331

Purposes of Staff Development 332

The Supervisor’s Role in In-Service Education 334

Assumptions about In-Service Education 338

Characteristics of Effective In-Service Programs 340

A Model for In-Service Education 341

Planning 341

Implementation 345

Evaluation 351

Post-Training Application and Evaluation 351

Control of In-Service Education 356

Teacher Education Centers 356

CHAPTER 10 HELPING TEACHERS ON A ONE-TO-ONE BASIS 365

Formative Evaluation 365

Clinical Supervision 366

The Supervisor’s Role in Clinical Supervision 368

Models of Clinical Supervision 370

Preobservation Conference 373

Observation 375

Postobservation Conference 382

Problems in Clinical Supervision 384

Who Will Do the Supervising? 384

Collegiality in Supervision 385

Do We Have the Necessary Resources? 388

For Whom Should Clinical Supervision Be Provided? 388

Are There Models Other Than the Clinical? 389

CHAPTER 11 HELPING TEACHERS WORK TOGETHER 399

Living in Groups 399

The Supervisor as Group Leader 403

Definition of Leadership 403

Traits of Leaders 404

Styles of Leadership 406

Decision Making 407

Effecting Change 409

Organizational Development 412

Communication 419

Group Process 423

Group Process versus Group Counseling 426

Training in Group Interaction 428

Practice in Interaction Skills 430

Record of Behavior of Individuals in Groups 430

Provision of Group Therapy-Type Sessions 430

National Staff Development Council 433

CHAPTER 12 HELPING TEACHERS EVALUATE THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE 441

Three Faces of Evaluation of Teacher Performance 441

Competencies to Be Evaluated 449

Evaluation of Instructional Skills 451

Evaluation of Personal and Professional Attributes 462

Using Evaluation Instruments 463

Student Evaluations 471

Parent Evaluations 473

PART V THE SUMMATIVE DIMENSION OF TEACHER EVALUATION 479

CHAPTER 13 SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER PERFORMANCE 481

Summative Evaluation 481

Who Should Be Evaluated? 483

Who Should Evaluate Teachers? 484

What Should Be Evaluated? 486

How Should the Evaluations Be Done? 489

How Should the Data Be Used? 502

Problems in Summative Evaluation 507

PART VI INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION: EVALUATION AND CHANGE 515

CHAPTER 14 IMPROVING INSTRUCTIONAL SUPERVISION 517

Role of the Supervisor: A Reprise 517

Evaluation of the Supervisor 519

Evaluation by Superordinates 519

Self-Evaluation 520

Evaluation by Teachers 523

Evaluation of the Supervisory Program 524

Evaluation by Objectives 525

Evaluative Questioning 525

Future Directions in Supervision 526

Domains of Supervision 526

Clarification of Approaches, Functions, and Roles 527

Balanced Supervision 528

Teacher Empowerment 529

School-Based Supervision 530

Peers, Coaches, and Mentors 531

Teacher Incentives, Career Ladder, and Merit Pay 532

Emphasis on Observable Teaching

Competencies 534

Clinical Supervision 535

Goal-Oriented Supervision 535

Supervisory Teams 535

Increased Use of Technology 536

Needed Research 536

Professional Education 537

Credits 545

Name Index 551

Subject Index 555

 

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