Wavelets in Intelligent Transportation Systems
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This book shows how wavelets can be used to enhance computational intelligence for chaotic and complex pattern recognition problems.  By integrating wavelets with other soft computing techniques such as neurocomputing and fuzzy logic, complicated and noisy pattern recognition problems can be solved effectively. The book focuses on applications in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) where a number of very complicated pattern recognition problems have eluded researchers over the past few decades.

Advancing the frontiers of computational intelligence, this book:

  • Describes ingenious computational models based on novel problem solving and computing techniques such as Case-Based Reasoning, Neurocomputing, and Wavelets, and presents examples to illustrate their importance and use.
  • Presents a multi-paradigm intelligent systems approach to the freeway traffic incident detection and construction work zone management problems.
  • Advocates application and integration of wavelets, neural networks and fuzzy logic for modeling the complex traffic flow behaviors leading to effective and efficient control and management solutions.
  • Presents efficient, reliable, and robust algorithms for automatic detection of incidents on freeways.

Wavelets in Intelligent Transportation Systems is an invaluable resource for computational intelligence researchers and transportation engineers involved in the application of advanced computational techniques for ITS.


Hojjat Adeli is currently Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science and Lichtenstein Professor in Infrastructure Engineering at The Ohio State University. A contributor to 70 Different scholarly journals, he has authored over 400 research and scientific publications in diverse areas of engineering, computer science, and applied mathematics since he received his PhD from Stanford University in 1976 at the age of 26. He has authored/co-authored nine pioneering books. His recent books are: Machine Learning - Neural Networks, Genetic, Algorithms, and Fuzzy Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1995; Neurocomputing for Design Automation, CRC Press, 1998; Distributed Computer-Aided Engineering, CRC Press, 1999; High Performance computing in Structural Engineering, CRC Press, 1999; and Control, Optimization and Smart Structures - High-Performance bridges and Buildings of the Future, John Wiley & Sons, 1999. He has also edited twelve books including Intelligent Information Systems, IEEE computer Society, 1997. He is the Editor-in-Chiffon two research journals: Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, which he founded in 1986, and Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering, which he found in 1993. He has been a Keynote/Plenary Lecturer at 53 International computing conference held in 32 different countries. On September 29, 1998, he was awarded a patent for a "Method and apparatus for efficient design automation and optimization, and structures produced thereby (United States Patent Number 5,815,394) (with a former PhD Student). He is the recipient of numerous academic, research and leadership awards, honors, and recognition. In 1998, he was awarded the University Distinguished Scholar Award by the Ohio State University ' 'in recognition of extraordinary accomplishment in research and scholarship' and the Senate of the General Assembly of State of Ohio passed a resolution honoring him as an ' Outstanding Ohioan'. He is the quadruple winner of the Ohio State University College of Engineering Lumley Outstanding Research Award. He has been an organizer or a member of the organization/Scientific/program committee of 245 conference held in 54 different countries. His research has been Sponsored by 20 different organizations, including government funding agencies such as the National Science Foundation, US Air Force Dynamics Laboratory, and US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, Fede3ral Highway Administration state funding agencies such as the Ohio Department of transportation, Ohio Department of Development, and the State of Ohio Research Challenge Program, professional societies such as the American Iron and  Steel Institute and the American Institute of Steel construction, and corporations such as Cray Research Inc., US Steel, and Bethlehem Steel corporation.

Asim Karim is currently Assistant Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Lahore University of manageme4nt Sciences (LUMS), Pakistan, He conducts research in diverse areas of computer science and engineering including applied artificial intelligence, intelligent data analysis and data mining, intelligent transportation systems, and high-performance computing His work has been published in 18 research articles in international journals and conferences. He is also the co-author of the book Construction Scheduling, Cost Optimization, and Management - A New Model Based on Neurocomputing and Object Technologies published by Spon Press in 2001. He received his BSc (with honors) from the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan, in 1994 and his PhD from the Ohio State University in 2002.


Preface xiii

Acknowledgements xv

About the Authors xvii

1 Introduction 1

2 Introduction to Wavelet Analysis 3

2.1 Introduction 3

2.2 Basic Concept of Wavelets and Wavelet Analysis 5

2.3 Mathematical Foundations 9

2.4 The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) 14

2.5 Multi-resolution Analysis 16

2.6 Wavelet Bases 18

2.7 Computing the DWT 23

3 Feature Extraction for Traffic Incident Detection Using the Wavelet Transform and Linear Discriminant Analysis 27

3.1 Introduction 27

3.2 Incident Detection Algorithms 29

3.3 Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) of Traffic Signals 31

3.4 Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) 34

3.5 Data Acquisition 37

3.6 Results 38

4 Adaptive Conjugate Gradient Neural Network-Wavelet Model for Traffic Incident Detection 45

4.1 Introduction 45

4.2 Improving Traffic Incident Detection 46

4.3 Adaptive Conjugate Gradient Neural Network Model 48

4.4 Incident Detection Results Using Various Approaches 52

4.5 Effect of Data Filtering Using the DWT 55

4.6 Relative Contribution of DWT and LDA for Feature Extraction 58

4.7 Effects of Freeway Geometry on Incident Detection 58

4.8 Conclusion 65

5 Enhancing Fuzzy Neural Network Algorithms Using Wavelets 67

5.1 Introduction 67

5.2 Discrete Wavelet Transform 69

5.3 Architecture 69

5.4 Training of the Network 72

5.5 Filtering of the Traffic Data Using the DWT 73

5.6 Incident Detection Results 73

6 Fuzzy-Wavelet Radial Basis Function Neural Network Model for Freeway Incident Detection 79

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 A New Traffic Incident Detection Methodology 80

6.3 Selection of Type and Number of Traffic Data 83

6.4 Wavelet-Based De-noising 85

6.5 Fuzzy Data Clustering 86

6.6 Radial Basis Function Neural Network Classifier 89

6.7 Fuzzy-Wavelet RBFNN Model for Incident Detection 91

6.8 Example 93

6.9 Conclusion 97

7 Comparison of the Fuzzy-Wavelet RBFNN Freeway Incident Detection Model with the California Algorithm 99

7.1 Introduction 99

7.2 California Algorithm #8 100

7.3 Evaluation of the Model 101

7.4 Concluding Remarks 116

8 Incident Detection Algorithm Using a Wavelet Energy Representation of Traffic Patterns 119

8.1 Introduction 119

8.2 Freeway Incident Detection and Patterns in Traffic Flow 120

8.3 Discrete Wavelet Transform and Signal Energy 129

8.4 Traffic Pattern Feature Enhancement and De-noising 131

8.5 Pattern Classification Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network 136

8.6 Wavelet Energy Freeway Incident Detection Algorithm 137

8.7 Model Testing 140

8.8 Conclusion 145

9 Parametric Evaluation of the Wavelet Energy Freeway Incident Detection Algorithm 147

9.1 Introduction 147

9.2 Factors to Consider in Rural Freeway Incident Detection 148

9.3 Evaluation and Parametric Investigation 150

9.4 Parametric Evaluation Using Simulated Data on Typical Urban Freeways 152

9.5 False Alarm Performance in the Vicinity of On-and Off Ramps 156

9.6 Evaluation on Rural Freeways 157

9.7 Evaluation Using Real Data 163

9.8 Performance Summary and Conclusion 164

10 Case-Based Reasoning Model for Work Zone Traffic Management 167

10.1 Introduction 167

10.2 Work Zones and Traffic Management 169

10.3 Case-Based Reasoning 170

10.4 Objectives 173

10.5 Scope and Categorization of Parameters 174

10.6 A Four-Set Case Model for the Work Zone Traffic Management Domain 176

10.7 Hierarchical Object-Oriented Case Model 179

10.8 Case Representation 181

10.9 Similarity Measures 185

10.10 Case Retrieval 185

10.11 Creation of the Case Base 186

10.12 Creation of Work Zone Traffic Control Plans Using the CBR System 187

10.13 Illustrative Examples 189

10.14 Conclusion 195

11 Mesoscopic-Wavelet Freeway Work Zone Flow and Congestion Model 197

11.1 Introduction 197

11.2 Macroscopic Models 200

11.3 Microscopic Models 200

11.4 A Mesoscopic Flow Model for a Freeway Work Zone 203

11.5 Traffic Feature Enhancement Using Discrete Wavelet Transform 211

11.6 Concluding Remarks 213

References 215

Index 223


"It is well-written and clearly structured. The book succeeds in giving a good understandable introduction of the topic…" (Zentralblatt MATH, 1106, 110)