Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance: A Comparative Voyage
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More About This Title Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance: A Comparative Voyage


A comparative, interdisciplinary examination of the mechanisms behind public administration

Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance is a comprehensive, comparative text on the structure and function of governments around the world. Written by two of the field's leading public administration scholars, this book provides an interdisciplinary perspective and a global, historical, and theoretical examination of the management and governance of the modern state. Readers learn how territory, bureaucracy, and political systems influence policy and reform in over thirty countries, and how these mechanisms affect the everyday lives of citizens. This comparative approach features rich examples of how policy is shaped by culture, and how modern policy principles are filtered to fit a country's needs and expectations. Chapters conclude with comparative analyses that help readers better-understand the role and position of government in the contemporary world, both in democratic societies and less-than-democratic environments.

Governance doesn't happen in a vacuum. Those responsible for policy, regulation, and reform take cues from history, current events, and visions for the future to inform thinking on matters that can potentially affect a large number of everyday lives. This book illustrates the thought process, providing the necessary insight these important decisions require.

Understand the relationship between structure and function of governmentLearn how policy is culture-dependentExamine the political and societal contexts of reformDiscover the myriad forms of modern bureaucracy

The various social sciences provide valuable information and perspectives for those involved in public administration. Those perspectives converge here to form a thorough, well-rounded, examination of the success and failure possible, and the mechanisms through which they take place. Global Dimensions of Public Administration and Governance provides a detailed, wide-ranging look at how modern governments operate, how they got this far, and where they're headed for the future.


JOS C.N. RAADSCHELDERS is Professor and Associate Director for Faculty Development at the John Glenn School of Public Affairs, The Ohio State University. A prolific, well-known scholar and teacher globally, Raadschelders' work is widely published in books and in the leading journals in the field. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.

ERAN VIGODA-GADOT is Professor, founder and Director of the Center for Public Management and Policy (CPMP) at the School of Political Science, University of Haifa, Israel. With expertise in Public Administration, Public Management, and Organizational Behavior, Vigoda-Gadot is well known nationally and internationally. He has more than 170 scholarly publications as well as 12 books, and the voyage still continues.


List of Tables and Figures xiii

Foreword xv

Acknowledgments xix

The Authors xxiii

1 Globalization and Government: Combining Global and Comparative Perspectives upon the State of Modern Government 1

Levels of Analysis and Understanding 5

Globalization 6

Combining a Global and Comparative Perspective 7

Combining the Studies of Administration and Politics 9

Audience for and Structure of This Book 10

Concluding Remarks: “Flying” and Comparing across the Globe 12


2 The Roots and Development of Governance, Government, and Public Administration: The Envelopment of Local Communities in Upper-Local Polities over Time 17

Types of Governing Associations 19

All Government and Governance Started Local 23

The Emergence of Territorial States as Upper-Local Polities 29

A Global Model of Government Development 32

The Development of Thinking about Government: From Political Theory to Public Administration 37

Comparing Government Models: Concluding Remarks 39

3 Structuring Governance and Government: The Layered Territorial and Bureaucratic Organization of the World 41

Territoriality and Property 42

Territorialization of the World 46

International Boundaries 48

Subnational Jurisdictions: Historical Trends 51

Subnational Jurisdictions: The Contemporary Situation 55

Bureaucracy as Organizational Structure: The Bureaucratization of the World 62

The Influence of Colonization 66

Concluding Remarks: Boundaries Creating Polities 68

4 State Making, Nation Building, and Citizenship 71

Defining State and Nation 74

State Making: Models and Explanations 82

The Separation of Organized Religion and the State: A Recent Phenomenon? 85

Nation Building: From Subjects to Citizens 89

Citizenship as Layered Phenomenon 91

A Future for State, Nation, and Citizenship? 94

5 Political-Administrative Systems and Multilevel Government 97

Basic Distinctions of Political Systems 98

Five Types of Political Systems in Relation to Political Party System 98

Unitary and Federal Systems 102

Typologies of Democratic Systems 108

Presidential and Parliamentary Systems 113

Party-Political and Bureaucratic-Prominent Systems 115

The Three Branches of Government and Core Features of Democratic Political Systems 118

The Structure of Government Departments 120

Multilevel and Multiactor Government and Governance 123

Concluding Remarks 128

6 Bureaucratic Organization and Culture 129

Defining Bureaucracy: The Influence of Max Weber and His Fears 130

Bureaucracy in the Evolution of Human Communities: The Origin of the Stereotype? 135

Societal Culture 138

Organizational Culture 146

Perceptions of Public Individuals 152

Sucking Water from Straws or Opening the Tap in the Kitchen 155

7 Organization, Management, and Policy: Comparing the Competencies of Government and Public Administration 157

The Human Side of Public Enterprise: Management, Organizations, and Behavior in Comparative Public
Administration 158

The Public Management Revolution: Comparative Views 161

Comparing the Sectors 163

The Implementation of NPM in Western Democracies 165

The United States: Measuring Performance 165

Britain: Who Comes First, the Public or the Nation? 166

The European Continent: Cultural Gaps beyond a Few Generic Similarities 167

Australia: The Administrative Responsibility Approach 168

Canada: Collaboration in Research and the Shaping of Public Policy 169

New Zealand: The Reshaping of Welfare Policy 170

Israel: Decentralization and Privatization 171

The Implementation of NPM in Other World Regions 172

Asia 173

Africa 175

Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Other Countries 177

The “Dinosaur Syndrome” and the Comparative Movement: A Midrange Comment 182

The Organization and Management of Global Policy and Public Administration 184

Summary 186

8 Bureaucracy as Personnel System and Political-Administrative Relations 187

The Importance of the Personnel Function for Responsive Government 188

Defining Bureaucracy as Personnel System: Max Weber’s Juridical Perspective 191

Categories of Public Servants in a Sociological Perspective 193

Variation in the Size of the Civil Service 198

Political-Administrative Relations: Intertwinement, Politicization, and Consultation 202

Development of the Personnel Function in Developed Countries 206

The Organizational Level: Personnel Management Focused on the Organization 211

The Individual Level: The Employee as a Person with Rights, Needs, and Feelings 213

The Societal Environment: Public Pressure for Change 215

Concluding Comments 217


9 Traditional Government Activities I: National Defense, Police, Law and Order 221

Atrocities of Man and Nature: National Defense and Emergency Management 221

France: Europeanization, Professionalization, and the End of Conscription 222

Israel: Militarized Society or Civilianized Military? 225

United States: Resting on Its Laurels—FEMA’s Vicissitudes from Ignominy to Luster and Vice Versa 231

Internal Security: Enforcing Law and Order 236

Colombia: A Quagmire of Guerillas, Drug Cartels, and Paramilitaries—Demilitarization Bogging Down 237

South Africa: Post-Apartheid Community Policing—Transmuting the Police Force to a Police Service 244

Britain: Integrating Offender Management—Performance, Contestability, and Amalgamation 248

The Judiciary System: One State under the Rule of Law 254

The People’s Republic of China: The Silent Revolution— Rationalization, Modernization, and Constitutionalization 254

The UN Security Council: Reforming a Perplexed Peacekeeper 259

Germany: A Nonimmigration Nation, Rife with Immigrants—Article 16 of the Basic Law in the Limelight 264

Comparing Defense, Police, and Judiciary across Nations 268

10 Traditional Government Activities II: Economy, Finance, and Taxation Systems 275

Economy and Finance 276

Romania: Restructuring Agriculture in a Transition Economy 276

Spain: Faltering Growth, Wavering Employment Rates—An Economy Veering between Prosperity and Downspin 279

Greece: Footing the Bill for Laxity during the Ostensive Boom Years 283

Iran: The Paradox of Plenty—Replete with Hydrocarbon Reserves and Yet in a Pickle 287

Tax Reforms: Taking for Giving 292

Denmark: Searching for the Magic Bullet to Reduce Income Tax

Pressures and Labor Costs 292

Belgium: Spurring Unemployed and Low Earners into Labor 295

Estonia: Going Flat—An Avant Garde That Has Become a Common Practice 298

Comparing Economy, Finance, and Taxation Systems across Nations 302

11 Social-Economic Services: Energy Management, Planning and Zoning, Industry and Trade 311

Energy Management 312

Russia: The Kremlin’s Bear Hug 312

Germany: Renewable Energy Sources Come to the Throne 315

California: A Calamity Precipitated by Deregulation 317

India: A Public Leopard with Private Spots 319

Planning and Zoning 322

Zimbabwe: Land Reform in a Ruptured Ex-Colony 322

New Zealand’s Resource Management Act: A Spearhead of Sustainable Development 324

Brazil: Frontiers, Landlords, Squatters, and a Vacillating Government 327

Laos: The Desperate Ecocide of the Poor 330

Industry and Trade 332

Morocco: Liberalization of Trade and Tariff Reforms 333

The Czech Republic: Cars, Motors, and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) 335

Canada: Trade Agreements with the Northern Empire 338

Mexico: The Poor Cousin of NAFTA’s Triad 341

Comparing Energy Management, Planning and Zoning, and Industry and Trade across Nations 344

12 Welfare Services and Policies: Health Care, Education, and Social Services 349

Health Care 350

Singapore: The “3Ms” triad—Medisave, Medishield, and Medifund 351

The Netherlands: Dutch-Managed Competition—Getting the Full Monty 354

Argentina: Promoting a Health Care System under a Sick Economy 357

Australia: A Public-Private Seesaw 360

Education 364

Wisconsin: Vouchering Together—Unlikely Allies in Milwaukee 364

France: Contractualization au Courant—Le Central Unleashes Higher Education 368

The People’s Republic of China: Between a Soviet Rock and a Western Hard Place—Higher Education on the Horns of a Dilemma 372

Britain: New Right, New ERA, Old Cleavages 376

Social Security 381

Chile: Social Security Gone Outright Private 381

Japan: A Double-Edged Sword—Super-Aged, Poorly Funded 386

Poland: Farewell Redistribution, Hello Funded Defined Contribution 390

Sweden: Transforming Corporatism and Remodeling Labor Market Policies 394

Comparing Health Care, Education, and Social Services across Nations 398

13 A Vision for Comparative Theory and Practice: Horizons of the Comparative Voyage 407

Comparison in Motion: Divergence and Convergence across Time and States 409

The Comparative Approach in Service of Interconnectedness, Emulation, and Policy Transfer 411

Comparative Public Administration and Governance: Between Transfer and Diffusion 414

Horizons for Comparative Public Administration and Governance 418

Summary and Final Remarks 421

Appendix One Structural Similarities—Cultural Differences: The Need for and Development of

Comparative Government Studies 427

The Function of Comparison in Society and in the Social Sciences 428

The Importance of Comparison in the Study of Public Administration 430

Geographical Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 432

Substantive Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 435

Methodological and Epistemological Fragmentation of Comparative Research and Understanding 440

The Development of Comparative Public Administration 443

Appendix Two Motives, Types and Theories, Methods for, and Challenges of Comparative Perspectives 449

Motives for Comparison 451

Theories, Methods, and Types of Comparison 454

Approaches to and Theories in Comparative Public Administration and Governance 454

Three Basic Methods of Comparison 458

Types of Comparisons 461

Challenges of Comparative Research 464

Conceptual, Linguistic, and Semantic Problems 465

Theoretical and Methodological Problems 468

Research Technical Problems 472

Problems of Application 473

Bibliography 475

Index 525