Designing Effective Instruction, Eighth Edition
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More About This Title Designing Effective Instruction, Eighth Edition


A guide to the information and practical skills for successful instructional design, revised and updated 

The updated eighth edition of Designing Effective Instruction offers educators an essential guide for designing effective and efficient instruction that is exciting and interesting. The flexible model presented is based on research from many different disciplines. The authors—noted experts on the topic—draw on recent research that incorporates both behavioral and cognitive approaches into the model.

The eighth edition highlights the fundamentals of instructional design that can help students develop a solid foundation in the design process. These basic skills can be adapted to a wide variety of settings, such as multimedia, classroom, business, health care, higher education, and distance-education instruction. This new edition has been revised to include information on the most recent research and trends. The book also contains a new section on the topic of lean instructional design. This new section discusses strategies to reduce time and resources for each step of the process. This important guide:

  • Offers a review of the basic skills needed to create effective instruction
  • Includes various features to stimulate thinking and provides additional explanations
  • Provides a real-world scenario in every chapter
  • Presents exercises to test skills and knowledge
  • Contains a quality management section to help conduct a quick quality check of the design project

Written for instructional designers in business, military, medical, and government settings as well as to those in higher education and P–12 classrooms, Designing Effective Instruction is the proven resource for designing quality instruction that can motivate participants.


GARY R. MORRISON is a professor emeritus at Old Dominion University.

STEVEN M. ROSS is a senior research scientist and professor at the Center for Research and Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University.

JENNIFER R. MORRISON is an assistant professor at the Center for Research and Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University.

HOWARD K. KALMAN is an associate professor in strategic communication at Ithaca College.


Preface xi

Acknowledgments xiv

About the Authors xv

Chapter One Introduction to the Instructional Design Process 2

Getting Started 2

Why Instructional Design? 4

What Is Instructional Design? 8

Overview of Our Design Model 16

Who’s Who in the Instructional Design Process 20

Answering the Critics 21

Questions . . . Questions . . . Questions 23

Summary 23

The ID Process 24

Application 25

Answers 25

References 25

Chapter Two Identifying the Need for Instruction 28

Getting Started 28

Is Instruction the Answer? 30

Needs Assessment 31

Goal Analysis 41

Performance Assessment 44

Summary 45

The ID Process 46

Application 47

Answers 48

Quality Management 49

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 49

References 50

Chapter Three Learner and Contextual Analysis 52

Getting Started 52

Types of Learner Characteristics 54

Contextual Analysis 63

Summary 67

The ID Process 67

Application 68

Answers 69

Quality Management 69

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 69

Potential Audience Misconceptions 71

Orienting Context 71

References 71

Chapter Four Task Analysis 74

Getting Started 74

Task Analysis 76

Topic Analysis 79

Procedural Analysis 82

The Critical Incident Method 90

Conducting a Task Analysis 92

Summary 95

The ID Process 95

Application 96

Answer 96

Quality Management 98

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 99

References 101

Chapter Five Instructional Objectives 104

Getting Started 104

Function of Objectives 104

Three Objective Domains 106

Developing Instructional Objectives 110

Writing Objectives in the Cognitive Domain 111

Writing Objectives for the Psychomotor Domain 117

Writing Objectives for the Affective Domain 117

Classifying Objectives 119

Pros and Cons of Writing Objectives 121

Summary 122

The ID Process 122

Application 123

Answers 124

Quality Management 124

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 125

References 127

Chapter Six Designing the Instruction: Sequencing 128

Getting Started 128

The Posner and Strike Sequencing Schemes 130

Elaboration Theory Sequencing 136

Content Expertise Sequencing 136

Task Expertise Sequencing 136

From Objectives to Sequencing 137

Summary 137

The ID Process 137

Application 138

Answers 138

Quality Management 138

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 139

References 140

Chapter Seven Designing the Instruction: Strategies 142

Getting Started 142

Why Instructional Strategies? 144

Prescriptions for Instructional Strategies 146

Summary 159

The ID Process 160

Applications 161

Answers 161

Quality Management 162

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 162

References 165

Chapter Eight Designing the Instructional Message 170

Getting Started 170

Preinstructional Strategies 172

Message Design for Text 176

Pictures and Graphics in Instruction 183

Effectiveness 183

Graphical Signals 184

Summary 191

The ID Process 191

Lean Instructional Design 191

Applications 192

Answers 192

Quality Management 193

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 193

References 195

Chapter Nine Developing Instructional Materials 200

Getting Started 200

Starting the Development of the Instruction 200

Heuristics for Developing Instruction 203

Putting Pen to Paper or Fingers to Keyboard 207

Group Presentations 217

Self-Paced Learning 222

Changing Roles 225

Small-Group Formats 226

Summary 229

The ID Process 230

Application 230

Answer 231

Quality Management 231

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 231

References 232

Chapter Ten Design Considerations for Technology-Based Instruction 238

Getting Started 238

Individualized Computer- and Web-Based Instruction 240

Design Considerations for Individualized Computer and Web-Based Instruction 243

Design Considerations for Group-Based Distance Instruction 255

Summary 258

The ID Process 258

Application 259

Answer 259

Quality Management 259

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 260

References 261

Chapter Eleven The Many Faces of Evaluation 268

Getting Started 268

Purposes of Evaluation 270

Relationship among Formative, Summative, and Confirmative Evaluations 274

Relationship between Evaluation and Instructional Objectives 276

Suggested Measures for Alternative Outcomes 277

Validity and Reliability of Tests 277

Standards of Achievement 282

Student Self-Evaluation 286

Summary 288

The ID Process 289

Application 291

Answer 291

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 291

References 293

Chapter Twelve Developing Evaluation Instruments 296

Getting Started 296

Testing Knowledge 298

Testing Skills and Behavior 311

Attitudes 323

Summary 329

The ID Process 329

Applications 330

Answers 330

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 331

References 333

Chapter Thirteen Using Evaluation to Enhance Programs: Conducting Formative and Summative Evaluations 334

Getting Started 334

A Basic Model for Formative Evaluation 336

Types of Formative Evaluation 341

Stages of Formative Evaluation 344

Summative Evaluation: Determining Program Outcomes 345

Program Effectiveness 347

Program Efficiency 350

Program Costs 351

Confirmative Evaluation: Determining Outcomes Over Time 355

Reporting Results of Summative and Confirmative Evaluations 359

Summary 359

The ID Process 360

Application 362

Answer 362

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 362

References 364

Chapter Fourteen Learning Theory and Instructional Theory 366

Getting Started 366

Introduction 368

Learning Theory 369

Summary 382

The ID Process 383

Application 385

Answer 386

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 386

References 387

Chapter Fifteen Planning for Instructional Implementation 390

Getting Started 390

Planned Change 390

The CLER Model 395

Planning the Implementation with the CLER Model 399

Tichy’s TPC (Technical, Political, Cultural) Framework 401

Developmental Stages and Information Decision Process Models 402

Implementation Decisions 403

Instructors 405

Role of Supervisors 407

Summary 408

The ID Process 408

Application 409

Answers 409

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 410

References 410

Chapter Sixteen Instructional Design Project Management 412

Getting Started 412

Project Management 414

Project Agreement and Proposal Preparation 422

Instructional Design Shortcuts 427

Flexibility of the Instructional Design Process 427

Instructional Design in Organizations 427

Working with the Subject-Matter Expert and Consultants 429

Legal Considerations in ID Project Management 431

Summary 434

The ID Process 434

Application 435

Answers 435

Instructional Design: Decisions and Choices 435

References 436

Appendix A Sample Instructional Design Documentation 439

Appendix B A Sample Instructional Unit 449

Glossary 459

Index 463