The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship
Buy Rights Online Buy Rights

Rights Contact Login For More Details

More About This Title The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship


Written by leading scholars, The Wiley Handbook of Entrepreneurship provides a distinctive overview of methodological, theoretical and paradigm changes in the area of entrepreneurship research. It is divided into four parts covering history and theory, individual differences and creativity, organizational aspects of innovation including intrapreneurship, and macroeconomic aspects such as social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship in developing countries. The result is a must-have resource for seasoned researchers and newcomers alike, as well as practitioners and advanced students of business, entrepreneurship, and social and organizational psychology.


Gorkan Ahmetoglu is Lecturer in Business Psychology at University College London (UCL), and co-founder of Meta Profiling Ltd.

Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic is Professor of Business Psychology at University College London (UCL), and CEO of Hogan Assessments.

Bailey Klinger is Founder and Executive Chairman of the Entrepreneurial Finance Lab, and was previously a Fellow at Harvard University's Center for International Development.

Tessa Karcisky is a Business Psychologist with a PhD from the University of Cologne.


Preface xv

Acknowledgments xxiii

Section 1 Entrepreneurship: Theory and Research

1a: Understanding Entrepreneurship 1

1 A Future of Entrepreneurship Research: Domain, Data, Theory, and Impact 3
Per Davidsson

Introduction 3

Narrowing and Broadening the Field 3

Richer, Better, and More Varied Data 6

The Quest for Increased Theoretical Precision 7

Abstraction, Conceptual Clarity, and Operationalization 9

Sample Size, Data Quality, Statistical Significance, and Practical Relevance 12

Expanding the null hypothesis 13

Stating predictions as comparisons 13

Developing non-nil predictions 13

Specifying other than linear functional forms 13

Recognizing Context 13

Increased Demands for Practical Relevance 14

Conclusion 17

References 17

2 Entrepreneurship as a Process: Empirical Evidence for Entrepreneurial Engagement Levels 25
Peter van der Zwan and Roy Thurik

Introduction 25

Merits of Entrepreneurship as a Process 27

Three Stylized Facts 28

Latent Entrepreneurship 29

Different Roles Throughout the Process 29

Country Differences 30

Conclusion and Recommendations for Future Research 31

References 33

3 Types and Roles of Productive Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Study 37
Sander Wennekers and André van Stel

Introduction 37

Ensuing Research Questions 39

Methodology 39

Typologies and Types 39

From Typologies/Dimensions to Major Types 41

Twelve major types of entrepreneurship 43

Further Reduction to Four Main Types 44

Entrepreneurial Roles 45

General Entrepreneurial Roles 45

Specific Entrepreneurial Roles 46

Intermediary Effects and Final Contributions 50

Intermediate Effects 51

Final Contributions 54

Causal Chains per Main Type of Entrepreneurship: A Synthesis 57

Ambitious Innovators 57

Ambitious Replicators/Adapters 58

Solo Self-Employed 59

Managerial Employers (Rest Group) 60

Discussion and Conclusions 61

Summarizing and Interpreting the Main Findings 61

Implications for Research 62

Implications for Policy 63

Conclusion 65

References 65

4 Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior 71
Bruce T. Teague and William B. Gartner

Introduction 71

The Current State of Entrepreneurial Behavior Scholarship 72

(Re)defining Entrepreneurial Behavior 73

Defining Behavior 73

Defining Entrepreneurial Behavior 74

The Role of Behavior in Existing Theories and Frameworks 76

A Theory of Enterpreneurial Behavior 78

Behavioral Repertoire 80

Sources of Behavioral Variation 81

Level of Mastery 83

Implications of a Theory of Entrepreneurial Behavior 84

Toward an Entrepreneurial Behavior Research Agenda 85

Next Steps 86

Conclusions 87

References 88

Section 2 The Individual: Psychology of Entrepreneurship 95

5 The Psychology of Entrepreneurship: A Selective Review and a Path Forward 97
Kelly G. Shaver and Amy E. Davis

Introduction 97

Why Ask Why? 97

The Personality Approach 98

Single Traits 98

Achievement Motivation 98

Risk Propensity 99

Broad Sets of Dimensions 100

Inventories of Traits 100

Latent Dimensions 101

The Social Cognition Approach 102

Career Reasons 103

Attribution Processes 104

Social Cognitive Theories 104

Expectancy Theory 105

Theory of Planned Behavior 105

Entrepreneurial Teams 106

Approaches to Teams 106

Team Structure 107

Toward a More Inclusive Future 107

Culturally Inclusive and Specific 108

Gender 108

Race and Ethnicity 108

Life Course and Personal Context 108

Country of Origin 109

Methodologically Inclusive and Specific 109

Theoretically Precise 109

Multiple Dimensions 110

Replication 110

Teams Over Time 110

Conclusion 111

References 111

6 Tools Entrepreneurs Need for Converting Dreams To Reality—And Achieving Success 119
Robert A. Baron

Introduction 119

Motivation: What Goals Do Entrepreneurs Seek 120

Cognitive Tools: Creativity, Opportunity Recognition, and Avoiding Cognitive Traps 121

Opportunity Recognition of Creation: Recognizing or Creating Practical Uses of Ideas 122

The Personal Side of Entrepreneurial Success: Characteristics and Skills That Contribute to Success 125

Personal Characteristics: Self-Efficacy, the “Big Five,” and Willingness to Improvise 126

From Desire to Achievement: The Role of Self-Regulation 127

Passion: Deep, Emotional Commitment to Entrepreneurship and the Roles it Involves 128

The Social Side of Entrepreneurial Success II: Forming High Quality Social Networks and Getting Along With Others 129

How do Entrepreneurs Build their Social Networks? 130

Dealing with Adversity—and Failure 131

Coping With Stress 132

Psychological Capital 132

Dealing with Business Failure: When One Dream Ends Another (Should) Begin 133

Putting it All Together: The Successful Entrepreneur’s Tool Kit 133

Tools for Changing the World—or at Least Some Corner of it 134

References 136

7 Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Process Perspective 139
Maike Lex and Michael M. Gielnik

Introduction 139

Creativity and Entrepreneurship: A Conceptual Differentiation 140

The Effect of Creativity on Entrepreneurship 141

Toward a Cumulative Process Model of Creativity in Entrepreneurship 143

Key Assumptions of the Cumulative Process Model 145

Creativity and its Underlying Components 145

The Entrepreneurial Process and its Constituting Phases 145

An Ambidexterity Perspective on Creativity in the Entrepreneurial Process 147

A Cumulative Process Model on Creativity in Entrepreneurship 149

Prelaunch 149

Launch 151

Postlaunch 154

The Cumulative Process Model: A Summary 157

An Interactionist Perspective on Creativity in Entrepreneurship 157

Practical Implications: Promoting Creativity to Promote Entrepreneurship 159

Future Research 161

Conclusion 162

References 163

8 The Dark Side of the Entrepreneurial Personality: Undesirable or Maladaptive Traits and Behaviors Associated with Entrepreneurs 173
Angelo S. DeNisi and Benjamin N. Alexander

Introduction 173

Recent Interest and Older Views 174

Entrepreneurial Personality and Entrepreneurship Outcomes 175

Personality and Entrepreneurial Intentions 175

Personality and Entrepreneurial Success 177

Broader Impact 179

Future Research on the Dark Side of the Entrepreneurial Personality 180

Untangling Outcomes and Trait Phenomena 180

Basic Issues 182

Conclusion 183

References 184

9 Female Entrepreneurship and IQ 187
R.W. Hafer

Introduction 187

Measuring Female Entrepreneurship and IQ 188

The Female Entrepreneurship Index 188

National IQ 190

The Model and Data 191

Regression Results 194

Robustness Tests 195

Caveats 197

Conclusions and Policy Implications 198

References 198

Appendix A 201

Appendix B 204

Acknowledgments 204

10 The Person in Social Entrepreneurship: A Systematic Review of Research on the social Entrepreneurial Personality 205
Ute Stephan and Andreana Drencheva

Introduction 205

Theoretical Background 206

Social Entrepreneurship 206

Personality 207

Review Approach and Overview of the Reviewed Studies 207

Review Findings 208

Motivation 208

General values, motives, interests 211

Specific motives 213

Traits 216

Identity 217

Leadership and Managerial Skills 218

Discussion and Opportunities for Future Research 220

Building on Strengths and Insights of the Current Research 222

References 223

Acknowledgment 229

11 An Individual Differences Approach to Studying Entrepreneurial Tendencies 231
Gorkan Ahmetoglu and Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic

Introduction 231

The Pillars of Individual Differences Psychology 232

The Psychological Approach to Entrepreneurship 233

A Critical Evaluation of the Psychological Approach to Entrepreneurship 234

A Critical Evaluation of the Group Differences Approach 234

A Critical Evaluation of Comparisons Between More and Less Successful Entrepreneurs 236

An Individual Differences Approach to Understanding Entrepreneurial Tendencies 236

(Re)defining Entrepreneurial Tendencies 237

The Practical Importance of Theoretical Preciseness 238

Recommendations for Researching Entrepreneurial Tendencies 239

How Do We Assess Entrepreneurial Tendencies? 240

How Do General Entrepreneurial Tendencies Manifest in Contextual Behavior? 242

Classification of Entrepreneurial Behaviors 242

How Do General Entrepreneurial Tendencies and Contextual Behavior Manifest in Entrepreneurial Output? 245

Discussion 247

Implications for Entrepreneurship Research 248

Implications Beyond Business Creation 249

Other Considerations 249

Existing and Future Research 250

Conclusion 251

References 251

Section 2a: Genetics of Entrepreneurship 257

12 Biology and Entrepreneurship 259
Ahmed Nofal, Nicos Nicolaou, and Noni Symeonidou

Introduction 259

Genetics and Entrepreneurship 260

Quantitative Genetics in Entrepreneurship 260

Tendency to Engage in Entrepreneurship 260

Genetic Influences on Physiology 261

Genetic Covariation with Individual Attributes 261

Gene X Environment Interactions 262

Gene X Environment Correlations 262

Opportunity Recognition 262

Entrepreneurial Intention 262

Entrepreneurial Performance 263

Molecular Genetics in Entrepreneurship 263

Candidate-Gene Studies 263

Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) 264

Hormones in Entrepreneurship 265

Physiology in Entrepreneurship 266

Neuroscience in Entrepreneurship 266

Quantitative Electroencephalogram 267

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging 267

Conclusion 267

References 268

13 “Born, Not Made” and Other Beliefs About Entrepreneurial Ability 273
Daniel P. Forbes

Introduction 273

“Born, Not Made”: Beliefs and Evidence 274

Understanding How People Think About Entrepreneurs 277

Essentialist Lay Beliefs 277

Genetic Essentialist Lay Beliefs About Entrepreneurs 278

Born-Not-Made and General Beliefs About Entrepreneurial Ability 280

Implications of Belief in Born-Not-Made 280

Implications for the Judgments People Make About Their Own Entrepreneurial Abilities 281

Implications for the Judgments People Make About Others’ Entrepreneurial Abilities 283

Discussion 284

References 286

Acknowledgments 291

Section 3 The Organization: Corporate Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Teams

3a: The Organization 293

14 Corporate Entrepreneurship & Innovation: Today’s Leadership Challenge 295
Donald F. Kuratko

Introduction 295

What Constitutes the Domain of Corporate Entrepreneurship? 296

The Importance of a Climate Conducive for Innovative Activity 298

Managerial Levels and Contributions to Entrepreneurial Efforts 300

Ingredients for an Effective Corporate Entrepreneurial Strategy 302

Challenges with Implementation of Corporate Entrepreneurship 304

Future Expectations 305

References 307

Section 3b: Entrepreneurial Teams 313

15 Unraveling the Black Box of New Venture Team Processes 315
Ekaterina S. Bjornali, Mirjam Knockaert, Nicolai Foss, Daniel Leunbach and Truls Erikson

Introduction 315

The New Venture Team as a Focal Object of Inquiry 316

Internal Factors 316

External Factors 317

Disentangling NVT “Processes” in the Input-Processes-Outcome Framework 318

Toward a Framework for Studying NVT Processes 318

Prefounding Phase 319

Postfounding phase 319

Selected Theories Within the Theoretical Foundations 321

Faultline Theory 321

Future Research Directions 324

Behavioral Integration and Shared Cognition 324

Future Research Directions 325

Shared Leadership 326

Future Research Directions 327

Creativity and Imagination 328

Future Research Directions 329

Organizational and Team Justice 330

Future Research Directions 331

Transactive Memory Systems 332

Future Research Directions 332

Measuring New Venture Team Processes 333

Methodological Issues in NVT Studies 333

Collinearity 334

Dominant Survey Method 334

Cross-Sectional Designs 334

Meeting Methodological Challenges 335

Improving Survey Instruments 335

Simulation Exercises: Agent-Based Modeling 335

Neurostudies 336

Towards a Mixed Methods Approach 337

Concluding Remarks 337

References 338

Section 4 National and International Entrepreneurship

4a: National Entrepreneurship 349

16 The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship and the Strategic Management of Places 351
David B. Audretsch and Erik E. Lehmann

Introduction 351

The Challenge of Inequality of Places 353

Globalization and Regionalization 353

The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurship in Transforming Places 353

Transforming Regions to Places 355

The Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 356

Defining the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 356

The Emergence of the Knowledge Spillover Theory of Entrepreneurship 358

Knowledge Spillover Theory and Places 360

The Knowledge Filter and the Strategic Management of Place 363

Absorptive Capacity of Place 366

Emergence of a Strategic Management Approach of Place 368

Conclusions 371

References 372

17 The Effect of New Business Formation on Regional Development 379
Michael Fritsch

Introduction 379

The Basic Relationships 380

The Magnitude of Direct and Indirect Effects 383

Differences in the Contribution of New Business Formation to Economic Growth Across Industries and Regions 385

The Persistence of Regional Entrepreneurship 389

Policy Implications 391

Avenues for Further Research 392

Final Remarks 396

References 396

18 National Culture and Entrepreneurship 401
Gabriella Cacciotti and James C. Hayton

Introduction 401

Method 401

Conceptualization of National Culture in Entrepreneurship Research 402

National Culture as Values 403

Definition 403

Measures 403

Outcomes 404

National Culture as Norms and Practices 408

Definition 408

Measures 409

Outcomes 410

Summary 412

Directions for Future Research 414

Conclusion 416

References 416

19 Management of Entrepreneurial Ecosystems 423
Erkko Autio and Jonathan Levie

Introduction 423

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems: Definitions and Policy Challenges 425

Management of Complex Socioecological Ecosystems 428

Stakeholder Consultation 429

Stakeholder Participation 430

Scottish Innovation-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem 431

Method 431

REAP Scotland 432

Field Trial in Scotland 435

Case Reflection 438

Discussion 442

Conclusion 445

References 446

Section 4b: International Entrepreneurship 451

20 International Entrepreneurship and Networks 453
Salman Ahmad and Pavlos Dimitratos

Introduction 453

International Entrepreneurship: Definition 454

Network Perspective 456

Networks and International Entrepreneurship 457

Important Themes: Intersection of International Entrepreneurship and Networks Research 458

Network Creation and International Entrepreneurship 460

Network Types and International Entrepreneurship 460

Network Structures and International Entrepreneurship 463

Network Dynamics and International Entrepreneurship 464

Network’s Benefits and International Entrepreneurship 465

Theoretical Basis: Intersection of International Entrepreneurship Networks Research 468

Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) 469

Organizational Learning 469

Resource-Based View 470

Social Capital 470

Knowledge-Based View 471

Other Theories 471

Practical Implications 472

Future Research 472

Conclusion 472

References 473

Index 485