Fundamentals of Care
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Fundamentals of Care is an accessible introductory textbook for all health care assistants; assistant practitioners and social care support workers who are undertaking the newly introduced, mandatory Care Certificate, as well as offering a resource for providing care and support.

Practically focused, each chapter begins with the outcomes associated with each standard, which helps contextualise and focus the reader on the content and relevance to the Care Certificate. The book also includes exercises to encourage the reader to stop, look, listen and act, thinking cap activity promotes further thinking and application to care and support provision along with case studies and resource files.

Written to help the reader come to terms with the role and function of the heath and care assistants, Fundamentals of Care offers support to those undertaking the Care Certificate and to assist those who already work as health and care assistants, helping them in their quest to enhance safe and effective care.


Ian Peate OBE is Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Nursing, and Head of the School of Health Studies, Gibraltar.


Preface xi

Acknowledgements xiv

How to use your textbook xvi

Chapter 1 Health and social care provision in the UK 1

Introduction 2

An historical view 3

The NHS in the four countries 3

Provision of services 7

Regulation and monitoring of services 7

Professional regulation 8

Primary care services 9

Secondary care services 10

Tertiary care services 10

Ambulance trusts 10

Mental health trusts 11

Community health services 11

Social care and support 11

Assessment of care needs 12

Assessment of health needs 13

Chapter summary 14

Chapter 2 Working with others, teamwork 16

Introduction 17

Teamworking 18

Teams and teamworking 20

Team dynamics 22

Barriers to effective teamworking 22

Conflict 23

Chapter summary 25

Chapter 3 Understanding your role 27

Introduction 28

Who are you? 29

Job description 29

Agreed ways of working 32

Policies and procedures 32

Codes of conduct 33

Responsibility 35

Accountability 36

Delegation 37

Relationships 38

Chapter summary 40

Chapter 4 Your personal development 42

Introduction 43

Lifelong learning 44

How learning takes place, learning styles 44

Strategies to help with learning 45

Personal development plans 46

Appraisal 46

Your personal development plan 47

The personal development portfolio 48

Supervision 49

Training and development 50

Core learning 50

Giving and receiving feedback 52

Chapter summary 53

Chapter 5 Duty of care 55

Introduction 56

Duty of care 57

Your duty of care 57

Concerns 58

Promoting independence 59

Providing information 60

The constitution, complaints, comments and compliments 61

Raising concerns 61

Untoward incidents 62

Negligence 63

Conflict 63

Responding to conflict 63

Chapter summary 64

Chapter 6 Equality and diversity 66

Introduction 67

Legislation 68

Equality duty 68

Human Rights Act 69

Defining terms 70

Labelling, stereotyping and prejudice 71

Inequality 72

People with learning disabilities and those with mental health problems 74

Cultural sensitivity 74

Chapter summary 76

Chapter 7 Working in a person‐centred way 78

Introduction 79

Working in a person‐centred way 80

Person‐centred values 82

Enabling 84

Coordinated care 84

Personalised care 85

Person‐centred planning 85

Supporting people 86

Advanced care planning 86

The environment of care 87

Minimising discomfort, distress or pain 88

Responding to a person’s discomfort 89

Self‐esteem 90

Personal identity 91

Promoting wellbeing, identity and self‐esteem 91

Chapter summary 91

Chapter 8 Communication 93

Introduction 94

Care, compassion and communication 95

Communication 95

Types of communication 96

Verbal communication 97

Non‐verbal communication 97

Working in teams 99

Communication and language needs 100

Communication aids 100

Barriers to effective communication 101

Strategies to reduce barriers to communication 102

Preserving confidentiality 103

Chapter summary 104

Chapter 9 Privacy and dignity 106

Introduction 107

Protecting information 108

Disclosure 109

Implementing respect, privacy and dignity 110

Informed choice and choosing options 114

Assessing risk 115

Equality and diversity 116

Promoting independence 118

Chapter summary 118

Chapter 10 Fluids and nutrition 120

Introduction 121

Food and drink safety 122

Protecting people 124

Personal protective equipment in food hygiene 125

Nutrition and hydration 127

The Eatwell plate 128

Hydration 130

Poor hydration and nutrition 131

Helping people with their nutrition and hydration 133

Chapter summary 136

Chapter 11 Awareness of mental health, dementia and learning disability 139

Introduction 141

Mental health conditions 141

Service provision 143

Depression 144

Anxiety 146

Bipolar disorder 147

Psychosis 147

Dementia 147

Learning disabilities 150

The social model of disability 152

Assessing and making a diagnosis 155

Mental capacity 155

Assessing capacity 157

Chapter summary 158

Chapter 12 Safeguarding adults 160

Introduction 161

Safeguarding 162

Types of harm and abuse 163

Safeguarding vulnerable adults: the principles 165

A person‐centred approach 166

Safeguarding Adults Boards 167

Identifying and managing risk 167

Suspected or disclosed abuse 168

Reporting concerns 169

Chapter summary 170

Chapter 13 Safeguarding children 172

Introduction 173

Safeguarding and welfare 174

Child abuse and maltreatment 175

Impact of parents or carers on a child’s health and wellbeing 176

Types of abuse 176

Physical abuse 177

Emotional abuse 177

Sexual abuse 177

Neglect 177

Radicalisation 178

Trafficking 178

Female genital mutilation (FGM) 178

Gang abuse 179

Children and social media 179

The rights of the child 181

What to do if you have concerns of suspected or alleged abuse 181

Escalating concerns 183

Chapter summary 183

Chapter 14 Basic life support 185

Introduction 186

The heart 187

The lungs 187

Basic life support 187

The AVPU scale for checking a response 191

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) 191

Airway obstruction 194

Documentation 196

Automatic external defibrillators 196

Chapter summary 197

Chapter 15 Health and safety 199

Introduction 201

The law 201

Health and safety policies 201

Hazards in the workplace 202

Workplace hazards 203

Working with hazardous substances 206

Reporting health and safety hazards 206

Risk assessment 207

Accidents and incidents 207

Medicines 208

Moving, handling and assisting 209

Fire safety awareness 209

Working safely 212

Managing stress 212

Chapter summary 215

Chapter 16 Handling information 217

Introduction 218

Key legislation 219

The electronic patient record 221

Making concerns known 223

The use of social media 224

Chapter summary 224

Chapter 17 Infection prevention and control 226

Introduction 227

Roles and responsibilities 228

Transmission of infection 229

The chain of infection 231

Breaking the chain 234

Safe disposal of waste 235

Sharps disposal 236

Safe management of laundry 237

Personal protective equipment (PPE) 238

Chapter summary 238

Chapter 18 Questions you always wanted to ask 241

Introduction 242

Chapter summary 249

Annotated bibliography 251

Index 257


"This book is easy to read and navigate. The structure of the book leads the reader to be challenged into finding out more information and thinking about how this information can be used in practice. The chapters are presented in a clear way with a similar layout throughout all sections that enables the readers to find areas of interest quickly. While most of the subject matter is not new, this book pulls it together into a handy textbook that is very informative and will benefit those undertaking their Care Certificate and any health and social care assistant to really explore the fundamentals of their role and constantly improve their practice to ensure high-quality care is given." (BJHCA March 2017)