Modern Spain - 1808 to the Present
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More About This Title Modern Spain - 1808 to the Present


Modern Spain: 1808 to the Present is a comprehensive overview of Spanish history from the Napoleonic era to the present day.

  • Places a large emphasis on Spain's place within broader European and global history
  • The chronological political narrative is enriched by separate chapters on long term economic, social and cultural developments
  • This presentation of modern Spanish history incorporates the latest thinking on key issues of modernity, social movements, nationalism, democratization and  democracy


Pamela Beth Radcliff is Professor of History at the University of California, San Diego. She is the author of From Mobilization to Civil War: The Politics of Polarization in the Spanish City of Gijon, 1900-1937 (1996), Making Democratic Citizens in Spain: Civil Society and the Popular Origins of the Transition, 1960-1978 (2011)and co-editor of Constructing Spanish Womanhood: Female Identity in Modern Spain (1999).


List of Maps xi

Preface xii

Acknowledgments xvi

Abbreviations and Glossary of Foreign Terms xviii

Political Chronology of Spanish History, 1808–2016 xxii

Part I: 1808–1868: The Era of the Liberal Revolution 1

1 Spain in the “Age of Revolutions” 3

Spain in Europe and the World, 1780s–1820 4

A Snapshot of the Economy: Gradual Growth 7

Uneven Regional Development: Center/Periphery Divide 10

The Mediterranean Regional Network 10

The North Atlantic Regional Network 11

Regional Networks of the Center 12

Demography: A Growth Pattern 14

Characteristics of the Population: Occupation and Social Structure 15

Culture and Community 18

Political Crisis, 1808–1814 20

Dynastic Crisis 20

War and Resistance 21

The Cortes of Cádiz and the Constitution of 1812 22

A Spanish “Constitutional Culture” 23

The End of the Revolutionary Era 25

Conclusion 26

2 Political Transformation: From the Old Regime to the Liberal State, 1814–1868 28

Introduction: The Liberal Revolution in Comparative Context 28

The Major Players 31

Moderate and Progressive Parties 31

The Military and Pronunciamientos 32

The Crown 32

Popular/Local Mobilization 33

Counter?]revolution: Carlists 33

The Catholic Church 34

Chronology: From the Restoration of Absolutism to the Construction and Crisis of the Liberal State, 1814–1868 35

1814–1833: The Restoration and Demise of the Absolutist State 35

Restoration of Absolutism, 1814–1820 35

The Liberal “Trienio,” 1820–23 36

Return to Absolutism, 1823–34 38

1833–1845: The Construction of the Liberal State 39

The Carlist War 39

Moderate and Progressive Constitutions and Platforms 40

The Parameters of a Liberal Political, Juridical and Administrative Order, 1833–45 42

1845–1868: The Liberal State: From Consolidation to Crisis 44

Conclusion: Achievements and Limits of the Liberal Political Transformation 45

Part II: 1868–1923: The Emergence of Mass Politics 49

3 Politics on the Margins of the Liberal State: From 1848 to the “Sexenio” (1868–1874) 51

Introduction: Mid?]Nineteenth?]century Popular Politics in Comparative Perspective 51

The Major Players 54

Carlists 54

Cuban Separatists 55

Democrats and Republicans 56

The Labor Movement and the First International 58

The First Democracy: The Sexenio, 1868–1874 60

The September 1868 Revolution 60

The Democratic Monarchy (June 1869–February 1873) 61

The Republic (February 12, 1873–January 4, 1874) 63

Conclusion 65

4 A New Era of Liberal Politics: The Second Restoration, 1875–1898 67

The Restoration in Comparative Context: State,

Nation, Empire and Democracy 68

The Multiple Faces of the Restoration Regime 71

Constructing a New Constitutional Regime: Antonio Cánovas del Castillo and the turno pacífico 71

The Dark Side of the Turno: Electoral Fraud and Caciquismo 74

Evaluating the Constraints and Opportunities of Restoration Politics 75

Constraints on Political Liberties Imposed by the State 75

Political Constraints and Opportunities: The View “From Below” 77

The “Disaster” of 1898: The Start of a New Era? 80

5 Restoration Politics: From Fin de Siècle to Postwar Crisis, 1898–1923 83

Introduction: Early Twentieth?]Century Spanish Politics in Comparative Context 83

1898–1914: Efforts to Reform the Regime “From Above” 85

The Conservative Party and Antonio Maura 86

The Liberal Party and José Canalejas 87

1914–23: From Elite Reform to Mass Mobilization: Alternative Political Projects 90

The First World War in Spain 90

From the Turno to Fragmentation of the Liberal and Conservative Parties, 1913–23 91

Movements on the Right 92

Catholic Mobilization 92

Basque Nationalism (PNV/CNV) 93

Mauristas/Spanish Nationalism 94

Movements on the Left 95

Socialists (PSOE/UGT) 95

Anarcho?]syndicalists (CNT) 96

Movements of the Center 97

Republicanism 97

Catalanism/LLiga 98

Turning Points in the Crisis of the Restoration, 1917–23 99

The Democratic Assembly Movement, 1917 100

The La Canadiense Strike, 1919 101

A Last Effort at Reform “From Above,” 1920–23? 102

Conclusion 103

Part III: The Long View: Social, Economic and Cultural Change, 1830–1930 105

6 Economic and Demographic Evolution: 1830–1930 107

Spain in the World Economy, 1830–1930 108

General Economic and Population Trends: Gradual Growth and Structural Evolution 110

The Agricultural Sector 113

The Industrial Sector 115

Uneven Regional Development: Center/Periphery Divide 118

Conclusion: Missed Opportunities or Inherent Constraints? 120

7 Culture and Society, 1830–1930 122

Introduction: Social and Cultural Evolution in Comparative Perspective 122

The Social Order: Evolution and Diversity 124

A Hybrid Elite 125

The Urban Middle Classes 126

The Popular Classes or “el pueblo” 127

Rural Society 128

Sociability and Identity: A Diverse and Evolving Cultural Landscape 129

A New Urban Culture: Encoding Social Hierarchy in the Public Sphere 130

On the Margins of Middle Class Culture: The Avant?]Garde and the Modern Woman 133

Urban Popular Sociability and Mass Culture 134

The Catholic Church, Religion and Rural Society 136

Local, Regional and National Cultures and Identities 139

Conclusion 142

Part IV: Dictatorship and Democracy, 1923–Present 143

8 The First Dictatorship: The Primo de Rivera Regime, 1923–1930 145

Introduction: The Primo Regime in Comparative Perspective 145

From Coup to “Temporary” Dictatorship, 1923–1925 148

Elements of a New Kind of Dictatorship: The Civil Directory, 1925–1929 149

Labor Relations 150

Nationalization Campaigns 151

Authoritarian Development 153

End of the Dictatorship, 1929–1930 154

Political Transition to a Republic, 1930–1931 155

Conclusion 156

9 The Second Republic: 1931–1936 158

The Second Republic in Comparative Perspective 159

Periodization: The Shifting Majority Coalitions of the Second Republic 161

The First Biennium (1931–1933): Pursuing a Center/Left Majority Coalition 164

What Went Wrong with the First Biennium? 167

Mobilizing against the Coalition 167

A Disintegrating Majority Coalition 169

The Second Biennium, 1933–1935: Pursuing a Center/Right Majority Coalition 173

What Went Wrong with the Second Biennium? 175

Mobilizing against the Coalition 176

An Unconsolidated Majority Coalition 178

The Popular Front, February–July 1936 180

What Went Wrong with the Popular Front? 181

Conclusion 182

10 The Civil War: 1936–1939 184

The Civil War in Comparative Perspective 185

From Military Coup to Civil War: The Summer of 1936 187

The Rebel Forces in the Summer of 1936 188

Ideology and Violence in Rebel Territory 190

The Loyalist Forces during the Summer of 1936 191

Revolution in Republican Territory 191

Violence in Republican Territory 194

Organizing for the Long War: The Republicans 195

Foreign Aid 196

Reconstructing a Republican State 198

Organizing for the Long War: The Nationalists 201

Constructing a “New State” 201

Foreign Aid 203

The Military Stages of the War 204

Conclusion 207

11 The Second Dictatorship: The Franco Regime, 1939–1976 209

The Franco Regime in Comparative Perspective 210

Periodization: The Stages of the Franco Dictatorship 212

Phase One, 1936–1945: Militarization, Fascist Influence and Extreme Repression 214

Phase II, 1945–1957: National Catholicism, Monarchist Restoration and International Integration 218

Phase III, 1957–1969: Authoritarian Development and Institutionalization 221

Phase IV, 1969–1975: Collapse of the Coalition and Death of the Dictator 227

Conclusion 229

12 Economic, Social and Cultural Transformation, 1930s–1970s 230

Economy, Society and Culture in Comparative Perspective 230

Economic and Demographic Trends 232

The “Years of Hunger”: Deprivation, Disease and Death in the 1940s 232

From Economic Stagnation to Rapid Growth: 1950s–1970s 234

Structural shift from Agriculture to Industry and Service Sectors 235

Consumption and Population Trends 236

Uneven Benefits 237

Social and Cultural Trends 238

Society and Culture in the Years of Hunger 239

Rupture and Restitution for Winners and Losers 239

Family and Gender 240

The Church, Religion and Education 241

The Public Sphere: Associations and Sociability 242

Social and Cultural Evolution in the Growth Years: 1960s–1970s 244

Migration and Social Mobility 244

Diversification of the Public Sphere 245

The Decline of “Tradition”: Youth, Gender and Religion 247

Conclusion 248

13 The Last Democratic Transition: 1976–1982 250

The Transition to Democracy in Comparative Perspective 251

Origins of the Transition: Favorable Factors vs. the 1930s 252

Economic Development 252

Geographic Location: Western Europe 252

Civil Society Mobilization 253

Francoist Elites: Reformers and the Bunker 254

The Institutional Transition: July 1976–December 1978 254

Elite Actors and the “Push from Below,” 1976–77 255

The June 1977 Elections and Building Consensus Through “Pacts” 257

The Constitution of 1978 259

The Basque Exception 261

From Transition to Consolidation, 1978–1982 261

Autonomous Governments 262

Local Governments 262

Leadership Crisis and Attempted Coup, 1981 263

The 1982 Election 264

Conclusion 265

14 Democratic State and Social Transformation, 1982–2016 266

The Democratic Era in Comparative Perspective 266

Democratic government under PSOE leadership: 1982–1996 270

Institutionalization and European Integration 270

Neo?]Liberalism and Social Welfare 272

The End of the PSOE Era 273

From Consolidation to Crispación: PP and PSOE alternation from 1996 to 2011 274

Political Polarization 275

State/Regional Polarization 277

Democratic Society 277

2008–2016: Crisis and Uncertainty 278

Conclusion 280

Notes 282

Works Cited 314

Index 336