New Challenges for Knowledge
Buy Rights Online Buy Rights

Rights Contact Login For More Details

More About This Title New Challenges for Knowledge


Digital technologies are reshaping every field of social and economic lives, so do they in the world of scientific knowledge. “The New Challenges of Knowledge” aims at understanding how the new digital technologies alter the production, diffusion and valorization of knowledge. We propose to give an insight into the economical, geopolitical and political stakes of numeric in knowledge in different countries. Law is at the center of this evolution, especially in the case of national and international confusion about Internet, Science and knowledge.


Renaud Fabre, Head of STI Department of the CNRS, France.


Introduction . xiii

Part 1. Production: Global Knowledge and Science in the Digital Era  1

Chapter 1. Current Knowledge Dynamics 3

1.1. Transparency of scientific data 4

1.2. Transparency of experimental protocol  6

1.3. A necessary form of research engineering 7

1.4. Confusion between data and scientific results: avoiding manipulation of research results 8

Chapter 2. Digital Conditions for Knowledge Production  11

2.1. An economic system oriented toward innovation  11

2.2. What of knowledge and indeed the concept of the commons? 13

2.3. From analog to digital 14

2.4. User–producer: civil society enters the knowledge production system  16

2.5. The interactions between the various spheres of knowledge production 18

2.6. Collaboration between society and knowledge: producing authorities should be put into perspective 20

Chapter 3. The Dual Relationship between the User and the Developer 23

3.1. Legal arrangements for knowledge-sharing using development platforms 23

3.2. The user contributes to the creation and development of content process 25

Chapter 4. Researchers’ Uses and Needs for Scientific and Technical Information  29

4.1. The CNRS survey 29

4.2. Diverse uses and dual needs 31

4.3. An explanation through differentiated scientific analysis  33

Chapter 5. New Tools for Knowledge Capture  37

5.1. The growth of metadata exploitation  37

5.2. Are we moving toward a semantic Web? 38

5.3. Tools and limits for metadata processing 39

5.4. The challenges of the semantic Web  40

Chapter 6. Modes of Knowledge Sharing and Technologies  43

6.1. Data storage technologies and access allowing knowledge sharing 43

6.2. Exchange platforms and catalogs  44

6.3. Knowledge-processing and digital editions  45

Part 2. Sharing Mechanisms: Knowledge Sharing and the Knowledge-based Economy 47

Chapter 7. Business Model for Scientific Publication 49

7.1. The current economic model is changing so as to adapt to new conditions for knowledge sharing  49

7.2. Creation of a new model 51

7.3. The issues raised by the creation of a new economic model  52

7.4. A new economic model struggling to fine its niche 54

Chapter 8. Actor Strategy: International Scientific Publishing, Services with High Added Value and Research Communities 57

8.1. Publishing, editing and existing: live issues within the publication of Scientific and Technical Information (STI) 58

8.2. Who is subject to it? The other players in scientific publishing  59

8.3. The characteristics of SMS (Science of Man and Society)  60

8.4. Existing without publishing? New STI directions  62

8.5. Alternatives to scientific publishing  63

Chapter 9. New Approaches to Scientific Production 67

9.1. New means of access to scientific production: innovative models  67

9.2. Two main objectives: accelerating knowledge sharing and promoting scientific collaboration 71

9.3. The need for new analytical tools and the risk of reprivatization of scientific knowledge. 72

9.4. The absence of the usage doctrine and the risk of reprivatization of science: the case of social networks  74

Chapter 10. The Geopolitics of Science 77

10.1. National convergent research models 78

10.2. Science is a source of international cooperation  81

10.3. International scientific cooperation is accelerating 84

Chapter 11. Copyright Serving the Market 85

Part 3. Enhancement Knowledge Rights and Public Policies in the Wake of Digital Technology 89

Chapter 12. Legal Protection of Scientific Research Results in the Humanities and Social Sciences  91

12.1.Different legal protections for different kinds of science 91

12.2. Why protect? 92

12.3. How to protect  93

12.4. Protect against whom? 98

12.5. Changing the challenges of Internet protection 99

12.6. Legal obstacles related to the author’s right 100

Chapter 13. Development of Knowledge and Public Policies 103

13.1. Knowledge enhancement concerns everyone  104

13.2. What are the public policies for enhancing knowledge?  105

13.3. State establishment of connections between actors: a key tool in knowledge enhancement  107

13.4. Comparing the United States and the European Union  109

Chapter 14. From Author to Enhancer  111

14.1. Enhancing scientific research is a complex process  112

14.2. Scientific research enhancement follows a legislative framework intended to promote innovation  114

Chapter 15. The Right to Knowledge: Moving Toward a Universal Law? 117

15.1. Unclear regulatory frameworks  118

15.2. Developing legal frameworks related to the Internet is complicated 121

15.3. Proposals for developing legal frameworks for the Internet  123

Chapter 16. Governing by Algorithm 127

16.1. Statistics that foreshadow algorithms 128

16.2. Algorithmic governance and democratic opportunities  130

Chapter 17. Public Data and Science in e-Government  133

17.1. Disseminating data and disseminating science: a new requirement 134

17.2. Public data in the e-government  137

17.3. Science within e-government 139

Chapter 18. Surveillance, Sousveillance, Improper Capturing 141

18.1. The traditional legal framework for information capture 142

18.2. The clear need for a specific law 145

Chapter 19. Public Knowledge Policies in the Digital Age  149

19.1. GAFA domination and the oligopolization of the market 150

19.2. Isolated digital ecosystems 152

19.3. Regulation through competition law 153

19.4. Data protection: moving toward a law for the digital community 154

Chapter 20. The Politics of Creating Artificial Intelligence  157

20.1. History 158

20.2. Artificial intelligence has become a priority for public and private actors  160

20.4. The appearance of legal problems 162

Chapter 21. Security Policies in Artificial Intelligence 165

21.1. Security as a comment on machines and data  166

21.2. From the security of machines to the security of humans 169

Conclusion 175

Postscript  177

Glossary  179

Bibliography  185

Index 201


“Sharing economy models are rippling through the world of scientific knowledge and research; open access brings challenges for developers, researchers, and policy makers – all treated here in the context of law-making” The Magpi, issue 60, Aug 2017