Design of Highway Bridges: An LRFD Approach, Second edition
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RICHARD M. BARKER, PhD, PE, is Professor Emeritus of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. A consultant to contractors and design firms on bridge-related projects, he has fifty years of experience with highway bridges as a structural designer, project engineer, researcher, and teacher. He served as a subconsultant to AASHTO on maintenance of the LRFD specifications and to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on training course development for LRFD design of highway bridge substructures.

JAY A. PUCKETT, PhD, PE, is the V. O. Smith Professor of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Department Head at the University of Wyoming, and President of Bridge Tech, Inc., a consulting firm that specializes in software development for bridge engineering. With thirty years of experience in bridge research and development, he has developed software for the analysis and rating of bridge systems that is currently in use at over forty transportation agencies. Dr. Puckett is a consultant to AASHTO on their BridgeWare load rating and bridge design software. His research has involved several National Academy NCHRP projects.



Preface to the First Edition.

1 Introduction to Bridge Engineering.

1.1 A Bridge Is Key Element in a Transportation System.

1.2 Bridge Engineering in the United States.

1.2.1 Stone Arch Bridges.

1.2.2 Wooden Bridges.

1.2.3 Metal Truss Bridges.

1.2.4 Suspension Bridges.

1.2.5 Metal Arch Bridges.

1.2.6 Reinforced Concrete Bridges.

1.2.7 Girder Bridges.

1.2.8 Closing Remarks.

1.3 Bridge Specifications.

1.4 Implication of Bridge Failures on Practice.

1.4.1 Silver Bridge, Point Pleasant, West Virginia, December 15, 1967.

1.4.2 I-5 and I-210 Interchange, San Fernando, California, February 9, 1971.

1.4.3 Sunshine Skyway, Tampa Bay, Florida, May 9, 1980.

1.4.4 Mianus River Bridge, Greenwich, Connecticut, June 28, 1983.

1.4.5 Schoharie Creek Bridge, Amsterdam, New York, April 5, 1987.

1.4.6 Cypress Viaduct, Loma Prieta Earthquake, October 17, 1989.

1.5 Failures during Construction.

1.6 Bridge Engineer - Planner, Architect, Designer, Constructor, and Facility Manager.



2 Aesthetics and Bridge Types.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Nature of the Structural Design Process.

2.2.1 Description and Justification.

2.2.2 Public and Personal Knowledge.

2.2.3 Regulation.

2.2.4 Design Process.

2.3 Aesthetics in Bridge Design.

2.3.1 Definition of Aesthetics.

2.3.2 Qualities of Aesthetic Design.

2.3.3 Practical Guidelines for Medium- and Short-Span Bridges.

2.3.4 Computer Modeling.

2.3.5 Web References.

2.3.6 Closing Remarks on Aesthetics.

2.4 Types of Bridges.

2.4.1 Main Structure below the Deck Line.

2.4.2 Main Structure above the Deck Line.

2.4.3 Main Structure Coincides with the Deck Line.

2.4.4 Closing Remarks on Bridge Types.

2.5 Selection of Bridge Type.

2.5.1 Factors to Be Considered.

2.5.2 Bridge Types Used for Different Span Lengths.

2.5.3 Closing Remarks on Selection of Bridge Types.



3 General Design Considerations.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Development of Design Procedures.

3.2.1 Allowable Stress Design.

3.2.2 Variability of Loads.

3.2.3 Shortcomings of Allowable Stress Design.

3.2.4 Load and Resistance Factor Design.

3.3 Design Limit States.

3.3.1 General.

3.3.2 Service Limit State.

3.3.3 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State.

3.3.4 Strength Limit State.

3.3.5 Extreme Event Limit State.

3.4 Principles of Probabilistic Design.

3.4.1 Frequency Distribution and Mean Value.

3.4.2 Standard Deviation.

3.4.3 Probability Density Functions.

3.4.4 Bias Factor.

3.4.5 Coefficient of Variation.

3.4.6 Probability of Failure.

3.4.7 Safety Index β.

3.5 Calibration of LRFD Code.

3.5.1 Overview of the Calibration Process.

3.5.2 Calibration Using Reliability Theory.

3.5.3 Calibration by Fitting with ASD.

3.6 Geometric Design Considerations.

3.6.1 Roadway Widths.

3.6.2 Vertical Clearances.

3.6.3 Interchanges.

3.7 Closing Remarks.



4 Loads.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Gravity Loads.

4.2.1 Permanent Loads.

4.2.2 Transient Loads.

4.3 Lateral Loads.

4.3.1 Fluid Forces.

4.3.2 Seismic Loads.

4.3.3 Ice Forces.

4.4 Forces due to Deformations.

4.4.1 Temperature.

4.4.2 Creep and Shrinkage.

4.4.3 Settlement.

4.5 Collision Loads.

4.5.1 Vessel Collision.

4.5.2 Rail Collision.

4.5.3 Vehicle Collision.

4.6 Summary.



5 Influence Functions and Girder-Line Analysis.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Definition.

5.3 Statically Determinate Beams.

5.3.1 Concentrated Loads.

5.3.2 Uniform Loads.

5.4 Muller–Breslau Principle.

5.4.1 Betti’s Theorem.

5.4.2 Theory of Muller–Breslau Principle.

5.4.3 Qualitative Influence Functions.

5.5 Statically Indeterminate Beams.

5.5.1 Integration of Influence Functions.

5.5.2 Relationship between Influence Functions.

5.5.3 Muller–Breslau Principle for End Moments.

5.5.4 Automation by Matrix Structural Analysis.

5.6 Normalized Influence Functions.

5.7 AASHTO Vehicle Loads.

5.8 Influence Surfaces.

5.9 Summary.



6 System Analysis.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Safety of Methods.

6.2.1 Equilibrium for Safe Design.

6.2.2 Stress Reversal and Residual Stress.

6.2.3 Repetitive Overloads.

6.2.4 Fatigue and Serviceability.

6.3 Gravity Load Analysis.

6.3.1 Slab–Girder Bridges.

6.3.2 Slab Bridges.

6.3.3 Slabs in Slab–Girder Bridges.

6.3.4 Box-Girder Bridges.

6.4 Effects of Temperature, Shrinkage, and Prestress.

6.4.1 General.

6.4.2 Prestressing.

6.4.3 Temperature Effects.

6.4.4 Shrinkage and Creep.

6.5 Lateral Load Analysis.

6.5.1 Wind Loads.

6.5.2 Seismic Load Analysis.

6.6 Summary.


7 Concrete Bridges.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Material Response.

7.3 Constituents of Fresh Concrete.

7.4 Properties of Hardened Concrete.

7.4.1 Short-Term Properties of Concrete.

7.4.2 Long-Term Properties of Concrete.

7.5 Properties of Steel Reinforcement.

7.5.1 Nonprestressed Steel Reinforcement.

7.5.2 Prestressing Steel.

7.6 Limit States.

7.6.1 Service Limit State.

7.6.2 Fatigue Limit State.

7.6.3 Strength Limit State.

7.6.4 Extreme Event Limit State.

7.7 Flexural Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members.

7.7.1 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Bonded Tendons.

7.7.2 Depth to Neutral Axis for Beams with Unbonded Tendons.

7.7.3 Nominal Flexural Strength.

7.7.4 Ductility and Maximum Tensile Reinforcement.

7.7.5 Minimum Tensile Reinforcement.

7.7.6 Loss of Prestress.

7.8 Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members.

7.8.1 Variable-Angle Truss Model.

7.8.2 Modified Compression Field Theory.

7.8.3 Shear Design Using Modified Compression Field Theory.

7.9 Concrete Barrier Strength.

7.9.1 Strength of Uniform Thickness Barrier Wall.

7.9.2 Strength of Variable Thickness Barrier Wall.

7.9.3 Crash Testing of Barriers.

7.10 Example Problems.

7.10.1 Concrete Deck Design.

7.10.2 Solid Slab Bridge Design.

7.10.3 T-Beam Bridge Design.

7.10.4 Prestressed Girder Bridge.



8 Steel Bridges.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Material Properties.

8.2.1 Steelmaking Process: Traditional.

8.2.2 Steelmaking Precess: Mini Mills.

8.2.3 Steelmaking Process: Environmental Considerations.

8.2.4 Production of Finished Products.

8.2.5 Residual Stresses.

8.2.6 Heat Treatments.

8.2.7 Classification of Structural Steels.

8.2.8 Effects of Repeated Stress (Fatigue).

8.2.9 Brittle Fracture Considerations.

8.3 Limit States.

8.3.1 Service Limit State.

8.3.2 Fatigue and Fracture Limit State.

8.3.3 Strength Limit States.

8.3.4 Extreme Event Limit State.

8.4 General Design Requirements.

8.4.1 Effective Length of Span.

8.4.2 Dead-Load Camber.

8.4.3 Minimum Thickness of Steel.

8.4.4 Diaphragms and Cross Frames.

8.4.5 Lateral Bracing.

8.5 Tension Members.

8.5.1 Types of Connections.

8.5.2 Tensile Resistance.

8.5.3 Strength of Connections for Tensile Members.

8.6 Compression Members.

8.6.1 Column Stability Concepts.

8.6.2 Inelastic Buckling Concepts.

8.6.3 Compressive Resistance.

8.6.4 Connections for Compression Members.

8.7 I-Sections in Flexure.

8.7.1 General.

8.7.2 Yield Moment and Plastic Moment.

8.7.3 Stability Related to Flexural Resistance.

8.7.4 Limit States.

8.7.5 Summary of I-Sections in Flexure.

8.7.6 Closing Remarks on I-Sections in Flexure.

8.8 Shear Resistance of I-Sections.

8.8.1 Beam Action Shear Resistance.

8.8.2 Tension Field Action Shear Resistance.

8.8.3 Combined Shear Resistance.

8.8.4 Shear Resistance of Unstiffened Webs.

8.9 Shear Connectors.

8.9.1 Fatigue Limit State for Stud Connectors.

8.9.2 Strength Limit State for Stud Connectors.

8.10 Stiffeners.

8.10.1 Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners.

8.10.2 Bearing Stiffeners.

8.11 Example Problems.

8.11.1 Noncomposite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge.

8.11.2 Composite Rolled Steel Beam Bridge.

8.11.3 Multiple-Span Composite Steel Plate Girder Beam Bridge.


Appendix A: Influence Functions for Deck Analysis.

Appendix B: Metal Reinforcement Information.

Appendix C: Computer Software for LRFD of Bridges.

Appendix D: NCHRP 12-33 Project Team.