A History of Modern Psychology, Second Edition
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1. Introducing Psychology's History. Psychology and its history. Why study history? Why study psychology’s history? Key Issues in psychology’s history. Old versus new history. Presentism versus historicism. Internal versus external history. Personalistic versus naturalistic history. Close-Up: Edwin G. Boring (1886-1968). This book’s point of view. Historiography: Doing and writing history. Sources of historical data. Problems with the writing of history. Data selection problems. Interpretation problems. Approaching historical truth. Chapter 2. The Philosophical Context. A long past. Descartes and the beginnings of modern philosophy and science. Descartes and the rationalist argument. The Cartesian system: Rationalism, nativism, and mechanistic interactionism. Original Source Excerpt: Descartes on mind-body interactionism. The British empiricist argument and the associationists. John Locke (1632-1704): The origins of British empiricism Locke on human understanding. Locke on education. George Berkeley (1685-1753): Empiricism applied to vision British associationism. David Hume (1711-1776): The rules of association. David Hartley (1705-1757): A physiological associationism. Close-Up: Raising a philosopher. John Stuart Mill (1806-1873): On the verge of psychological science. Mill’s psychology. Mill’s logic. Rationalist responses to empiricism. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). In perspective. Chapter 3. The Neurophysiological Context. Heroic science in the age of Enlightenment. Sensory physiology. Reflex action. The Bell-Magendie law. The specific energies of nerves. Helmholtz: The physiologist’s physiologist. Measuring the speed of neural impulses. Helmholtz on vision and audition. Helmholtz and the problem of perception. Localization of brain function. The phrenology of Gall and Spurzheim Close-Up: The marketing of phrenology. Flourens and the method of ablation. The clinical method. The remarkable Phineas Gage. Original Source Excerpt: Broca discovers the speech center. Mapping the brain: Electrical stimulation. Early twentieth century studies of the nervous system and behavior. Neuron theory. Sir Charles Sherrington: The synapse. Karl Lashley: Learning and the cortex. Chapter 4. Wundt and German Psychology. An education in Germany. On the threshold of experimental psychology: Psychophysics. Ernst Weber ( 1795-1878). Two-point thresholds. Weber’s law. Gustav Fechner (1801-1889). Fechner’s Elements of Psychophysics.Wundt establishes a new psychology at Leipzig. Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920): Creating a new science. Wundt’s conception of the new psychology. Studying immediate conscious experience. Studying higher mental processes. Inside Wundt’s laboratory. Sensation and perception. Mental chronometry. An American in Leipzig. Rewriting history: The new and improved Wilhelm Wundt. The rediscovery of Wundt. The real Wundt. The Wundtian legacy. The new psychology spreads. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909: The experimental study of memory. Original Source Excerpt: Ebbinghaus on memory and forgetting. other contributions by Ebbinghaus. G. E. Müller (1850-1934): The experimentalist prototype. Oswald Külpe (1862-1915): The Würzburg school. Chapter 5. Darwin’s Century: Evolutionary Thinking. The species problem. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) and the theory of evolution. The shaping of a naturalist. The voyage of the Beagle.Darwin the geologist. Darwin the zoologist. The Galapagos islands The evolution of Darwin’s theory. Darwin’s delay. Elements of the theory of evolution. After the Origin of Species.Darwin and psychology’s history. The origins of comparative psychology. Darwin on the evolution of emotional expressions. Close-Up: Douglas Spalding and the experimental study of instinct. George Romanes (1848-1894): The anecdotal method. Conwy Lloyd Morgan (1852-1936): The principle of parsimony. Comparative psychology in America. Studying individual differences. Francis Galton (1822-1911): Jack of all sciences. The nature of intelligence. The anthropometric laboratory. Original Source Excerpt: Galton on measurement and association. Darwin’s century in perspective. Chapter 6. American Pioneers. Psychology in nineteenth century America. Faculty psychology. American psychology’s first textbook. The modern university. Education for women and minorities. William James (1842-1910): America’s first psychologist. The formative years. A life at Harvard. Creating American psychology’s most famous textbook. On methodology. Consciousness. Habit. Original Source Excerpt: William James on emotion. James’s later years. Spiritualism. Summing up William James. G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924): Professionalizing psychology. Hall’s early life and education. From Johns Hopkins to Clark Psychology at Clark Close-Up: Creating maze learning. Hall and developmental psychology. Mary Whiton Calkins (1863-1930): Challenging the male monopoly. Calkins’s life and work. Graduate education for females. Calkins’s research on association. From psychology to philosophy. Other women pioneers: Untold lives. Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847-1930). Margaret Floy Washburn (1871-1939). In perspective: The new psychology at the millennium. Chapter 7. Structuralism and Functionalism. Titchener’s psychology: Structuralism. From Oxford to Leipzig to Cornell. Promoting experimental psychology at Cornell. The manuals. The Experimentalists. Titchener’s structuralist system. Close-Up: The introspective attitude. The structural elements of conscious experience. Evaluating Titchener’s contributions to psychology. America’s psychology: Functionalism. The Chicago functionalists. John Dewey (1859-1952): The reflex arc. James R. Angell (1869-1949): The province of functional psychology. Harvey Carr (1873-1954): The maturing of functionalism. The Columbia functionalists. Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949): Connectionism. Original Source Excerpt: Thorndike on puzzle box learning. The Thorndike-Mills controversy. Robert S. Woodworth (1869-1962): A dynamic psychology. Chapter 8. Applying the New Psychology. Pressures toward application. The mental testing movement. James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944): An American Galton. Alfred Binet (1857-1911): The birth of intelligence testing. The Binet-Simon scales. Henry Goddard (1866-1957): Binet’s test comes to America. The Kallikaks. Goddard and the immigrants. Lewis Terman (1877-1956): Institutionalizing IQ. The Stanford-Binet IQ test. Terman studies the gifted. Close-Up: Leta Hollingworth: Advocating for gifted children and debunking myths about women. Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956): The Army testing program. Army alpha and Army beta. The controversy over intelligence. Applying psychology to business. Hugo Münsterberg (1863-1916): The diversity of applied psychology. Original Source Excerpt: Münsterberg and employee selection. Other leading industrial psychologists. Walter Van Dyke Bingham (1880-1952). Lillian Moller Gilbreth (1878-1972). Harry Hollingworth (1880-1956). Chapter 9. Gestalt Psychology. The origins and development of gestalt psychology. Max Wertheimer (1880-1943): Founding gestalt psychology. Koffka (1886-1941) and Köhler (1887-1867): The co-founders. Close-Up: A case of espionage? Gestalt psychology and perception. Principles of perceptual organization. Behavioral versus geographical environments. Psychophysical isomorphism. The gestalt approach to cognition and learning. Original Source Excerpt: Köhler on insight in apes. Wertheimer on productive thinking. Other gestalt research on cognition. Kurt Lewin (1890-1947): Expanding the gestalt vision . Early life and career. Field theory. The Zeigarnik effect. Lewin as developmental psychologist . Lewin as social psychologist. Action research Evaluating Lewin. In perspective: Gestalt psychology in America. Chapter 10. The Origins of Behaviorism . Behaviorism’s antecedents. Pavlov’s life and work. The development of a physiologist. Working in Pavlov’s laboratory. Pavlov’s classical conditioning research. Conditioning and extinction. Generalization and discrimination. Experimental neurosis. A program of research. Pavlov and the Soviets. Pavlov and the Americans. Close-Up: misportraying Pavlov’s apparatus. John B. Watson and the founding of behaviorism. The young functionalist at Chicago. The Watson/Carr maze studies. Opportunity knocks at Johns Hopkins. Original Source Excerpt: Watson’s behaviorist manifesto. Studying emotional development. The zenith and nadir of a career: Little Albert. A new life in advertising. Popularizing behaviorism. Evaluating Watsonian behaviorism. Chapter 11. The Evolution of Behaviorism. Post-Watsonian behaviorism. Logical positivism and operationism. Neobehaviorism. Edward C. Tolman (1886-1959): A purposive behaviorism. Tolman’s system. Molar versus molecular behavior. Goal-directedness. Intervening variables. Tolman’s research program. Latent learning. Cognitive maps. Evaluating Tolman. Clark Hull (1884-1952): A hypothetico-deductive system. Hull’s system. Postulate 4: Habit strength. Reaction potential. Evaluating Hull. B. F. Skinner (1904-1990): A radical behaviorism. Original Source Excerpt: Skinner and operant conditioning: an experimental analysis of behavior. Skinner and the problem of explanation. A technology of behavior. Close-Up: A Skinnerian utopia. Evaluating Skinner. Behaviorism in perspective. Chapter 12. Mental Illness and its Treatment. Early treatment of the mentally ill. “Enlightnened” reform: Pinel, Tuke, and Rush. reforming asylums: Dix and Beers. Close-Up: Diagnosing mental illness. Mesmerism and hypnosis. Mesmerism and animal magnetism. From mesmerism to hypnosis. The hypnotism controversies. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Founding psychoanalysis. Early life and education. Breuer and the catharsis method . Creating psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis enters the twentieth century. Original Source Excerpt: Freud’s lectures at Clark University. The evolution of psychoanalytic theory. Freud’s followers: Loyalty and dissent. Psychoanalysis in America. Freud in perspective. Contributions. Criticisms. Clinical psychology in America. Lightner Witmer (1867-1956): Creating psychology’s first clinic. Clinical psychology prior to World War II. Chapter 13. Psychology’s Practitioners. Researchers and practitioners. The emergence of modern clinical psychology. The Boulder model. The Eysenck study: Problems for traditional psychotherapy. Close-Up: The medical strategy—lobotomies, transorbital and otherwise. Behavior therapy. The humanistic approach to psychotherapy. Carl Rogers and client-centered therapy. Original Source Excerpt: Rogers on creating a therapeutic environment. The Vail conference and the Psy.D. degree. Psychology and the world of business and industry. The Hawthorne studies. The practice of psychology in perspective. Chapter 14. Psychological Science in the Post-War Era. Cognitive psychology arrives (again). The roots of modern cognitive psychology. Frederick. C. Bartlett (1886-1969): Constructing memory. Original Source Excerpt: Bartlett on memory. A convergence of influences. Influences within psychology. Influences external to psychology. Close-Up: What revolution? Magical numbers, selective filters, and TOTE units. Neisser and the “naming” of cognitive psychology. The evolution of cognitive psychology. Artificial intelligence. Evaluating cognitive psychology. Other research areas. The brain and behavior. Donald O. Hebb (1904-1985). Social psychology. Leon Festinger (1919-1989). Personality psychology. Gordon Allport (1897-1967). Developmental psychology. Jean Piaget (1896-1980). Research psychology in perspective. Chapter 15. Linking Psychology’s Past and Present. The growth and diversity of psychology. Women in psychology’s history. Eleanor Gibson (1910-2002). Minorities in psychology’s history. Kenneth B. (1914- ) and Mamie Phipps (1917-1983) Clark. Trends in contemporary psychology The future: Psychology or psychologies? Summary. Study Questions. For Future Reading. References. Glossary. Photo, Text, and Illustration Credits. Name Index. Subject Index.