Human Reproduction: Updates and New Horizons
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More About This Title Human Reproduction: Updates and New Horizons


In vitro fertilization (IVF) and other assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have become a significant part of human reproduction, with already one in 50 children worldwide being born through ART and the demand steadily increasing. To accommodate the various kinds of infertility problems, new methods have been developed to increase IVF and ART success rates and it has also become possible to treat sperm, eggs, and embryos in culture to improve reproductive success, to increase the health state of an embryo, and to prevent disease in the developing child. 

Human Reproduction: Updates and New Horizons focuses on recent developments and new approaches to study egg and sperm cells and embryo development, as well as addressing the increasing demand for IVF and ART to overcome infertility problems of various kinds that are encountered by an increasing number of couples worldwide.  The book includes 10 chapters written by experts in their specific fields to provide information on sperm selection techniques and their relevance to ART; In vitro maturation of human oocytes: current practices and future promises; Molecular biology of endometriosis; Novel immunological aspects for the treatment of age-induced ovarian and testicular infertility, other functional diseases, and early and advanced cancer immunotherapy; Mitochondrial manipulation for infertility treatment and disease prevention; Novel imaging techniques to assess gametes and preimplantation embryos; Clinical application of methods to select in vitro fertilized embryos; New horizons/developments in time-lapse morphokinetic analysis of mammalian embryos; The non-human primate model for early human development; Cytoskeletal functions, defects, and dysfunctions affecting human fertilization and embryo development.

This book will appeal to a large interdisciplinary audience, including researchers from both the basic science and medical communities. It will be a valuable reference for IVF clinicians, patients and prospective patients who are considering ART procedures, embryologists, cell biologists and students in the field of reproduction. 


Dr. Heide Schatten is Professor at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Her research is focused on cytoskeletal regulation and on cytoskeletal dysfunctions of the centrosome-microtubule complex in reproductive disorders and in cancers of the reproductive system. Her publications include advanced imaging methods, cellular and molecular biology, cancer biology, reproductive biology, microbiology and space biology which included collaborations with NASA scientists and experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour to examine the effects of spaceflight on cytoskeletal organization during fertilization and development.? She entertains active collaborations with colleagues in the USA, Europe, China, and Latin America and has given numerous presentations in these and other countries. She is a member of the American Society for Cell Biology, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Microscopy Society of America. She has received numerous awards including grant awards from NASA, NIH, and NSF. She has published over 200 papers, 14 book chapters and edited several special topics journal issues and 10 books (completed; editor or co-editor), with 3 more books currently in progress. She is editor of several journals.


List of Contributors xv

1 Sperm Selection Techniques and their Relevance to ART 1
Luke Simon, Monis B. Shamsi, and Douglas T. Carrell

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Need of Sperm Selection in ART 2

1.3 Methodology of Sperm Selection 3

1.4 Electrophoretic Sperm Separation 14

1.5 Zeta Test 18

1.6 Microelectrophoresis Sperm Selection 21

1.7 Raman Spectroscopy 24

1.8 Hyaluronic Acid Binding Assay 27

1.9 Future Perspective 30

References 31

2 In Vitro Maturation of Human Oocytes: Current Practices and Future Promises 45
Catherine M.H. Combelles

2.1 Introduction 45

2.2 Clinical Indications for IVM 46

2.3 Ovarian Stimulation Approaches for the Retrieval of Immature Oocytes 51

2.4 Maternal Conditions that may Influence IVM 54

2.5 Follicular Origins of Immature Oocytes for IVM 55

2.6 Clinical Safety of IVM 57

2.7 Concluding Remarks towards the Optimization of IVM 58

References 61

3 Molecular Biology of Endometriosis 71
Jayasree Sengupta, G. Anupa, Muzaffer Ahmed Bhat, and Debabrata Ghosh

3.1 Introduction 71

3.2 Brief Background 71

3.3 Genetic Basis of Endometriosis 76

3.4 Molecular Mechanisms of Endometriosis 77

3.5 Molecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in Genomics Era 83

3.6 Molecular Etiopathological Basis of Endometriosis: Leads in the Post-Genomics Era 99

3.7 Future Targets 113

Acknowledgments 115

Conflicts of Interest 116

References 116

4 Novel Immunological Aspects for the Treatment of Age-induced Ovarian and Testicular Infertility, Other Functional Diseases, and Early and Advanced Cancer Immunotherapy 143
Antonin Bukovsky

4.1 Introduction 143

4.2 Ovarian Infertility 145

4.3 Novel In Vitro Proposals for Ovarian Infertility Treatment 163

4.4 Novel In Vivo Proposal for Ovarian and Testicular Infertility Treatment 170

4.5 Systemic Treatment of Other Functional Diseases by Tissue Rejuvenation 174

4.6 Advantages of Local and Systemic Use of Honey Bee Propolis and Cayenne Pepper 175

4.7 The Promise of Pyramid Healing Systems 180

4.8 Raw Shiitake Causes Early Neoplasia Regression and Malignancy Recurrence Prevention 180

4.9 Immune Modulation for the Treatment of an Advanced Cancer 182

4.10 Advanced Ovarian Cancer Regression Case Report 184

4.11 Discussion 187

4.12 Conclusions 192

Abbreviations 193

Competing Interests 193

Author Contribution 193

References 194

5 Mitochondrial Manipulation for Infertility Treatment and Disease Prevention 205
Tetsuya Ishii

5.1 Introduction 205

5.2 The Roles of Mitochondria in Fertilization, Embryonic Development, and Disease 206

5.3 The Genetics of Mitochondria and Mitochondrial Diseases 209

5.4 Ooplasmic Transfer to Treat Infertility 210

5.5 Pronuclear Transfer to Achieve Pregnancy 214

5.6 Germinal Vesicle Transfer to Restore the Viability of Oocytes 216

5.7 Mitochondrial Diseases and Prevention of their Inheritance 217

5.8 Mitochondrial Replacement by Transferring Pronuclei and MII Spindle 218

5.9 Discussion 220

Acknowledgments 222

References 223

6 Novel Imaging Techniques to Assess Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos 231
Jason E. Swain

6.1 Introduction 231

6.2 Light and Impact on Mammalian Gametes and Embryos 232

6.3 Novel Imaging Approaches for Gametes and Embryos 233

6.4 Conclusion 255

References 256

7 Clinical Application of Methods to Select In Vitro Fertilized Embryos 267
Kirstine Kirkegaard, Thomas F. Dyrlund, and Hans Jakob Ingerslev

7.1 Introduction 267

7.2 Morphological Assessment 268

7.3 Genomic and Transcriptomic Analysis 279

7.4 Analysis of Conditioned Culture Medium 285

7.5 Summary 294

References 295

8 New Horizons/Developments in Time-Lapse Morphokinetic Analysis of Mammalian Embryos 313
Munevver Serdarogullari, Necati Findikli, and Mustafa Bahcecî

8.1 Introduction 313

8.2 Utilization of Time-Lapse Morphokinetics in Mammalian Embryos: A Historical Perspective 314

8.3 What is TLM? 315

8.4 What are the Benefits of TLM? 316

8.5 Application of TLM in Human ART Practice 318

8.6 The Possible Utilization of TLM Analysis in Aneuploidy Detection 324

8.7 Expected Contributions of TLM Technology in the Future of Mammalian Embryology 327

References 328

9 The Non-Human Primate Model for Early Human Development 339
Stuart Meyers and Renee Riejo-Pera

9.1 Introduction 339

9.2 Why Primate Models Are Critical to Understanding Human Development and Subfertility 340

9.3 NHP Model of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) 342

9.4 NHP Model of Early Embryo Development 343

9.5 Research Perspective on NHP Embryo Development 345

9.6 Summary 347

References 348

10 Cytoskeletal Functions, Defects, and Dysfunctions Affecting Human Fertilization and Embryo Development 355
Heide Schatten and Qing-Yuan Sun

10.1 Introduction 355

10.2 Components of the Cytoskeleton and their Important Functions in Reproductive Biology 356

10.3 The Role of the Cytoskeleton in Oocyte Maturation 360

10.4 Maturation Failures and Oocyte Aging 369

10.5 Fertilization and First Mitosis/Cell Division 371

10.6 Cellular Differentiation/Polarization During Pre-Implantation Embryo Development/Compaction Stage 374

10.7 Perspectives and Future Directions 380

References 381

Index 399