Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification
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  • Complete coverage on how SLD manifests in academic performance
  • Expert advice on theory- and research-based approaches to SLD identification
  • Conveniently formatted for rapid reference

Quickly acquire the knowledge and skills you need to accurately identify specific learning disabilities

Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification provides a brief overview examining the definitions and classification systems of—and methods for—identification of specific learning disabilities (SLDs). Focusing on descriptive efforts of the manifestations of SLDs in the academically critical areas of reading, writing, math, oral expression, and listening comprehension, this book features contributions by leading experts in the field, including Virginia Berninger, Steven Feifer, Jack Fletcher, Nancy Mather, Jack Naglieri, and more.

Like all the volumes in the Essentials of Psychological Assessment series, each concise chapter features numerous callout boxes highlighting key concepts, bulleted points, and extensive illustrative material, as well as test questions that help you gauge and reinforce your grasp of the information covered.

With multiple perspectives spanning several different theoretical orientations and offering various approaches to SLD identification that can be put into practice right away—from RTI methods to cognitive strengths and weaknesses approaches—this book offers important content for professionals who work with children and youth at risk for learning disabilities. With a Foreword by Cecil Reynolds, Essentials of Specific Learning Disability Identification presents rich and up-to-date information on models and methods of SLD identification.


DAWN P. FLANAGAN, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Director of the School Psychology Training Programs at St. John's University in Jamaica, New York, and Clinical Assistant Professor at the Yale Child Study Center, School of Medicine. She is the coauthor of several popular books in the Essentials series, including Essentials of WISC-IV Assessment, Second Edition, published by Wiley.

VINCENT C. ALFONSO, PhD, is Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the Graduate School of Education at Fordham University, New York, New York. He is coauthor with Dawn Flanagan of Essentials of Cross-Battery Assessment and The Achievement Test Desk Reference: A Guide to Learning Disability Identification, now both in their second editions and published by Wiley.


Foreword xiii

Series Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

One Overview of Specific Learning Disabilities 1
Marlene Sotelo-Dynega, Dawn P. Flanagan, and Vincent C. Alfonso

Two How SLD Manifests in Reading 21
Steven Feifer

Three How SLD Manifests in Mathematics 43
David C. Geary, Mary K. Hoard, and Drew H. Bailey

Four How SLD Manifests in Writing 65
Nancy Mather and Barbara J. Wendling

Five How SLD Manifests in Oral Expression and Listening Comprehension 89
Elisabeth H. Wiig

Six A Response to Intervention (RTI) Approach to SLD Identification 115
Jack M. Fletcher, Amy E. Barth, and Karla K. Stuebing

Seven The Discrepancy/Consistency Approach to SLD Identification Using the PASS Theory 145
Jack A. Naglieri

Eight RTI and Cognitive Hypothesis Testing for Identification and Intervention of Specific Learning Disabilities: The Best of Both Worlds 173
James B. Hale, Kirby L. Wycoff, and Catherine A. Fiorello

Nine Evidence-Based Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Reading Disabilities With and Without Comorbidities in Oral Language, Writing, and Math: Prevention, Problem-Solving Consultation, and Specialized Instruction 203
Virginia W. Berninger

Ten A CHC-based Operational Definition of SLD: Integrating Multiple Data Sources and Multiple Data-Gathering Methods 233
Dawn P. Flanagan, Vincent C. Alfonso, and Jennifer T. Mascolo

Eleven Separating Cultural and Linguistic Differences (CLD) From Specific Learning Disability (SLD) in the Evaluation of Diverse Students: Difference or Disorder? 299
Samuel O. Ortiz

References 327

Annotated Bibliography 371

About the Editors 375

About the Contributors 377

Author Index 379

Subject Index 397