Planning an Applied Research Project in Hospitality, Tourism, and Sports
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More About This Title Planning an Applied Research Project in Hospitality, Tourism, and Sports


Planning an Applied Research Project in Hospitality, Tourism and Sports provides a comprehensive and carefully structured treatment of all the aspects involved in planning a research project. Instead of being a statistically oriented book, this text provides a conceptual and process-oriented approach to planning and conducting research. Written for both students and professionals, it is easy to read, short, and to the point, i.e., practical. The book provides basic, yet comprehensive information about doing research, and can be used not only in a “research methods” course where students will have to plan and conduct a research project, but also in earlier course work to help students learn to write research papers. Planning an Applied Research Project in Hospitality, Tourism and Sports covers a range of subjects including: selecting a topic, conducting a literature review, developing a coherent design, and using various research techniques such as interviews, questionnaires, and observations. It also contains information on analyzing data once it has been collected and developing a proposal to obtain support before undertaking a research project. Unique coverage includes: 2 chapters on conducting and writing a literature review, 1 chapter on analyzing data (from both a qualitative and quantitative perspective), 1 chapter on writing a research proposal, and 3 detailed chapters on techniques. 


Frederic B. Mayo received his BA cum laude from Amherst College, his MBA in Management from Syracuse University, and his PhD from The Johns Hopkins University. Mayo is now a full-time Clinical Professor at New York Univeristy's School of Continuing and Professional Studies.


Preface x

Chapter 1 Reading and Analyzing Research 1

Introduction 1

Industry Articles and Reports 1

White Papers 2

Definition of a Scholarly Journal Article 4

Sport Management Memos 8

Locations of Scholarly Articles 8

Quantitative versus Qualitative Research 10

Structure of Scholarly Articles 12

Structure of Quantitative Articles 14

Structure of Qualitative or Theoretical Articles 14

Structure of Research Reports or Studies 15

Evaluating Scholarly Articles 16

Summary 21

Key Terms 21

Works Cited in This Chapter 21

Chapter 2 Developing an Interest or Topic 23

Introduction 23

Ways to Find Topics: Your Manager or Your Professor 23

Ways to Find Topics: Review of Past Reading 24

Ways to Find Topics: New Reading 24

Ways to Find Topics: Interviewing 25

Ways to Find Topics: Brainstorming 26

Ways to Find Topics: Conversing 26

Ways to Find Topics: Faculty Suggestions 26

Clarifying and Selecting Areas of Interest 27

Cognitive Mapping 28

Purpose Statements 30

Types of Research 31

Importance of a Purpose Statement 32

Developing Research Questions 32

Purpose Statements and Problem Statements 36

Criteria for Effective Purpose Statements 37

Summary 38

Key Terms 38

Works Cited in This Chapter 38

Chapter 3 Conducting a Literature Review 39

Introduction 39

Definition of a Literature Review 39

Purposes of a Literature Review 42

Finding Scholarly Articles 44

Order of Reading Scholarly Journal Articles 46

What to Look for When Reading Articles 48

Research Methods 49

Taking Notes as You Read 50

Evaluating Articles 52

Preparing an Annotated Bibliography 53

Making a Literature Review Effective and Interesting to Do 55

Summary 56

Key Terms 57

Works Cited in This Chapter 57

Chapter 4 Reviewing and Revising your Purpose Statement 60

Introduction 60

Reasons for Revising Purpose Statements 60

Importance and Significance of a Purpose Statement 62

Purpose Statement and Supporting Dimensions 62

Process of Reviewing and Revising 64

Criteria for a Good Purpose Statement 66

Refocusing the Research 67

A Flexible Process 67

Doping in the Tour De France—Changing Impossible to Attainable 68

Locally Grown Food—from Behavior to Modifi cation 69

Servicescape to Self-Service Technology 70

Product Placement in Video Games 71

Final Thoughts 72

Summary 73

Key Terms 73

Works Cited in This Chapter 73

Chapter 5 Writing a Literature Review 74

Introduction 74

Purposes of a Completed Literature Review 75

Audience 78

Voice and Tone 79

The Perspective of a Literature Review 80

Constructing the Written Literature Review 82

Criteria for a Good Literature Review 83

Summary 84

Key Terms 85

Works Cited in This Chapter 85

Chapter 6 Forms of Qualitative Research 87

Introduction 87

Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research 87

Purposes of Qualitative Research 89

Primary and Secondary Data 90

Types of Qualitative Research 91

Biographies and Histories 92

Case Studies 92

Conceptual Overviews or Reports of the Field 93

Content Analysis 94

Ethnographical Studies 95

Grounded Theory 95

Phenomenology 96

Program Evaluations 97

Advocacy Paper or Feasibility Study 98

Analyzing Information in Qualitative Research 98

Summary 99

Key Terms 100

Works Cited in This Chapter 100

Chapter 7 Forms of Quantitative Research 102

Introduction 102

Purposes of Quantitative Research 103

Types of Quantitative Research 105

Survey Research 105

Experimental Research 106

Post-Hoc Research 108

Developmental Research 109

Forecasting 110

Role of Hypotheses 112

Overcoming Confounding Variables 114

Determinations of Signifi cance 115

Mixed Methods 116

The Research Hourglass 118

Summary 119

Key Terms 120

Works Cited in This Chapter 120

Chapter 8 Sampling Issues in Research 122

Introduction 122

Reasons for Sampling 123

Strategies for Selecting a Sample 124

Sample Selection Process 125

Sampling Strategies 125

Probability Sampling Strategies 126

Non-Probability Sampling Strategies 128

Sources of Sampling Bias: Systemic Bias 131

Sources of Sampling Bias: Respondent Bias 132

Sources of Sampling Bias: Interviewer Bias 133

Sample Size 135

Summary 136

Key Terms 136

Works Cited in This Chapter 137

Chapter 9 Validity, Reliability, and Credibility in Research 138

Introduction 138

Credibility 138

Validity 139

Dependent and Independent Variables 140

Internal Validity 142

Forms of Instrument Validity 143

External Validity 146

Threats to External Validity 147

Reliability 148

Selecting a Research Design 149

Suggestions to Ensure Validity and Reliability 150

Summary 151

Key Terms 151

Works Cited in This Chapter 151

Chapter 10 Research Techniques—Interviews 153

Introduction 153

Using Interviews 153

Formats of Interviews 156

The Interview Protocol 157

Contacting the Interviewee 160

Preparing for the Interview 161

Stages of a Research Interview 163

Unusual Interview Formats 166

Group Interviews 166

Door-to-Door Interviews 167

Follow Up Interviews 168

Summary 168

Key Terms 169

Works Cited in This Chapter 169

Chapter 11 Research Techniques—Questionnaires 171

Introduction 171

Purposes of Questionnaires 171

Types of Questionnaires 173

Advantages and Disadvantages 175

Developing Questionnaires 176

Types of Questions 178

Electronic Questionnaires 181

Sequencing Questions 182

Demographic Data 182

Questionnaire Administration 183

Questionnaire Presentation 185

Privacy and Permission 186

Incentives 188

Summary 188

Key Terms 188

Works Cited in This Chapter 189

Chapter 12 Research Techniques: Observations, Focus Groups, and Other Techniques 191

Introduction 191

Benefits of Observational Research 191

Bias in Conducting Objective Observations 193

Challenges and Recommendations for Conducting Objective Observations 194

Observational Roles 196

Focus Groups 199

Benefits of Focus Groups 199

Challenges and Recommendations for Conducting Focus Groups 200

Size of Focus Groups 202

Expert Panels 202

Benefits of Expert Panels 203

Challenges and Recommendations in Conducting

Expert Panels 204

Content Analysis 205

Benefits of Content Analysis 206

Challenges and Recommendations in Using Content Analysis 207

Coding in Content Analysis 209

Summary 210

Key Terms 211

Works Cited in This Chapter 211

Chapter 13 Analyzing Data and Other Information 213

Introduction 213

Steps in Analyzing Information 213

Collecting the Information 214

Immersing Yourself in the Data 215

Coding Data for Privacy and Record Keeping 217

Reviewing the Research Questions or Objectives 218

Organizing and Sorting Information 218

Identifying Relationships and Patterns 219

Quantitative Analysis of Patterns 221

Qualitative Analysis of Patterns 222

Reviewing the Data 223

Interpreting the Findings 224

Displaying Information 226

Significance 228

Summary 229

Key Terms 229

Works Cited in This Chapter 229

Chapter 14 Writing a Research Proposal 231

Introduction 231

Reasons for a Proposal 231

Elements of a Proposal 233

Audience and Point of View 237

Prefatory Documents 238

Executive Summary 238

Tips for Writing an Executive Summary 239

Other Supporting Documents 240

Introduction and Conclusion 241

Criteria for a Good Research Proposal 242

Summary 244

Key Terms 245

Works Cited in This Chapter 245

Appendix A Writing an Annotated Bibliography 246

The following Appendices are available at

Appendix B Refereed Scholarly Journals

Appendix C Hospitality, Tourism, and Sports Websites

Appendix D Bibliographical Tools

Appendix E Popular Databases

Index 255