Visualizing Human Biology, Fourth Edition
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More About This Title Visualizing Human Biology, Fourth Edition


Visualizing Human Biology 4th edition includes many new features, additions, and visuals used to teach and explain. Varied learning styles are used through blogs, podcasts, animations and videos. Furthermore, box features highlight engaging stories that help maintain interest in the science behind the stories and connect what's relevant today with how human biology works. A new Visualizing Human Biology Lab Manual is fully compatible with the text, bringing the Visualizing approach into the laboratory setting.


0 How To Be a Successful Student 2

0.1 You and Your Textbook 4

0.2 What Kind of Learner Are You? 5

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: The Brain and Learning 7

I WONDER: Where can I Get The Best Information For My Research Paper? 8

0.3 Successful 21st Century Students Study Smarter, Not Harder 9

I WONDER: Do All Night Study Sessions Help or Hurt? 13


1 What Is Life? 16

1.1 Living Organisms Display Nine Specific Characteristics 18

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Homeostasis Is a Way of Life! 19

1.2 Human Biology Is Structured and Logical 20

I WONDER... Are Viruses Considered Living Organisms? 24

1.3 Scientists Approach Questions Using the Scientific Method 26

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Why Should Endangered Species Matter to Me? 29

1.4 Scientific Findings Often Lead to Ethical Dilemmas 30

2 Where Do We Come from and Where Do We Fit? 36

2.1 What Are the Origins of Modern Humans? 38

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Neanderthal Extinction 42

I WONDER... How Are Fossilized Human Remains “Interpreted” to Produce Our Family Tree? 43

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Are Humans Still Evolving? 44

2.2 What Does the Human Body Have in Common with the World Around It? 45

2.3 We Reflect Our Environment: We Have a Habitat and a Niche 49

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Environmental Illness: Real or Imagined? 51

Taylor S. Kennedy/NG Image Collection 3Everyday Chemistry of Life 56

3.1 Life Has a Unique Chemistry 58

I WONDER... If I Take Ginseng, Will I Pass My Exams?! 58

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Electrolytes and Homeostasis 61

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: van der Waals Forces in Nature 64

3.2 Water Is Life’s Essential Chemical 66

3.3 There Are Four Main Categories of Organic Chemicals 69

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Environmental Estrogens: Are We Feminizing the Planet? 73

4 Cells: Organization and Communication 84

4.1 The Cell Is Highly Organized and Dynamic 86

I WONDER... Can Stem Cells Really Cure Cancer? 87

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: “This Baby Needs Water!” 88

4.2 The Cell Membrane Delineates the Cell 89

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Malfunctioning Organelles Can Be Life Threatening 92

4.3 The Components of a Cell Are Called Organelles 94

4.4 Cell Communication Is Important to Cellular Success 103

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Artificial Life: Why Is It So Hard to Create? 105

5 Tissues 110

5.1 Cells Are the Building Blocks of Tissues 112

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Knee Troubles! 116

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Is Liposuction the Easy Way Out? 119

I WONDER... What Is Tissue Typing? 121

5.2 Organization Increases with Organs, Organ Systems, and the Organism 123

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Organ Farming?! 126

5.3 Scientists Use a Road Map to the Human Body 127


6 The Skeletomuscular System 134

6.1 The Skeletomuscular System Is Multifunctional and Dynamic 136

6.2 Bone Is Strong and Light Tissue 138


6.3 The Skeleton Holds It All Together 143

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Reinventing the Skeletomuscular System 151

6.4 Skeletal Muscles Exercise Power 153

6.5 Whole-Muscle Contractions Require Energy 160

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: “To Supplement or Not...That Is the Question” 162

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Exercise Can Do a Body Good 163

I WONDER... Can I Really “Think” My Way to a Better Athletic Performance? 164

7 The Nervous System 172

7.1 The Nervous System Is Categorized by Structure and Function 174

7.2 Neurons Work Through Action Potentials 178

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Your Brain on Alcohol 183

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: What Causes Drug Addiction? 184

7.3 The Brain and Spinal Cord Are Central to the Nervous System 185

I WONDER... What Is a Concussion? 189

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Is Early Detection of Alzheimer’s Benefician? 190

I WONDER... Does Sleep Really Make a Difference? 192

7.4 The Peripheral Nervous System Extends the Central Nervous System 198 Dr. Robert Frienland/Photo Researchers, Inc.

8 The Special Senses 204

8.1 The Special Senses Tell Us About Our Environment 206

I WONDER... Do Humans Respond to Phenomones? 206

8.2 Vision Is Our Most Acute Sense 212

8.3 The Special Senses Are Our Connection to the Outside World 219

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Sensory Sensitive Healing 220

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Laser Eye Surgery 221

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Let There Be Sight 222


9 Immunity and the Lymphatic System 226

9.1 How Do We Adapt to Stress? 228

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Marriage May Often Cause a Momentary Feeling of Panic 231

9.2 Skin and Mucous Membranes Are the First Line of Defense 231

9.3 We Have a Second Line of Innate Defense 237

9.4 The Lymphatic System and Specific Immunity Are Our Third Line of Defense 239

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Mononucleosis and the Spleen 240

ETHICS AND ISSUES: How Do Thoughts and Emotions Affect Our T Cells and Immune Systems? 250

9.5 Immunity Can Be Acquired Actively or Passively 251

I WONDER... Are There Any Vaccines Against Cancer? 252

10 Infectious Disease and Epidemiology 260

10.1 The Study of Epidemics Is Global in Scope 262

I WONDER... Are Any Epidemics Occurring Right Now? 266

10.2 Bacteria Are Single-Celled Wonders that Can Cause Disease 267

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Testing Antibiotics 270

ETHICS AND ISSUES: MRSA Causes and Implications 271

10.3 Viruses Can Reproduce and Kill, but They Are Not Alive 274

10.4 AIDS and HIV Attack the Immune System 281

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Current Actions in Worldwide Disease Prevention 285

10.5 Other Pathogens Carry Other Dangers 286

11 Cancer 294

11.1 Cancer Cells Develop in Distinct Ways 296

11.2 Cancer Has Many Causes and Effects 301

ETHICS AND ISSUES: How Do We React to Cancer Clusters? 304

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Unraveling Genetic Links to Cancer Risks 306

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Getting Back to Work After Cancer 311

11.3 Cancer Can Be Diagnosed and Treated Effectively 312

I WONDER... How Can I Lower My Cancer Risks? 318


12 The Cardiovascular System 324

12.1 The Heart Ensures Continual, 24/7

Nutrient Delivery 326

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: AEDs and Cardiac Arrest 333

12.2 Blood Transport Involves Miles of Sophisticated Plumbing 335

12.3 Different Circulatory Pathways Have Specific Purposes 338

12.4 Cardiovascular Disorders Have Life-Threatening Consequences 339

12.5 Blood Consists of Plasma and Formed Elements 343

ETHICS AND ISSUES: When Do People Have the Right to Refuse a Blood Transfusion? 345

I WONDER... How Does Blood Doping Work? 350

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Blood Thinners: How and Why 353

13 The Respiratory System: Movement of Air 360

13.1 The Respiratory System Provides Us with Essential Gas Exchange 362

I WONDER... Can I Really Get Sick from Breathing Deeply in Caves? 371

13.2 Air Must Be Moved In and Out of the Respiratory System 372

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Aging and Changing Respiratory Volumes 375

13.3 External Respiration Brings Supplies for Internal Respiration 376

13.4 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Requires Hemoglobin and Plasma 378

13.5 Respiratory Health Is Critical to Survival 381

ETHICS AND ISSUES: When Does Particulate Air Pollution Become a Serious Public Health Hazard? 384

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Tobacco, the Universal Poison 386

14 Nutrition: You Are What You Eat 392

14.1 Nutrients Are Life Sustaining 394

I WONDER... How Is My Ideal Body Weight Determined? 400

14.2 Nutrients Are Metabolized 405

14.3 Health Can Be Hurt by Nutritional Disorders 409

ETHICS AND ISSUES: The Obesity Epidemic 410

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: A Hidden Peril: E. Coli-Infested Food 411

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: How Do Environmental Agents Become Concentrated in My Food? 413

15 The Digestive System 418

15.1 Digestion Begins in the Oral Cavity 420

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Do Whitening Toothpastes and Gels Work? 423

15.2 The Stomach Puts Food to the Acid Test 426

I WONDER... How Does Gastric Bypass Surgery Work? 427

15.3 The Intestines and Accessory Organs Finish the Job 429

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Gallbladder Removal Options 435

15.4 Digestion Is Both Mechanical and Chemical 438

ETHICS AND ISSUES: How Much Do We Help the World If We Go Vegan? 441

16 The Urinary System 446

16.1 The Kidneys Are the Core of the Urinary System 448

16.2 Urine Is Made, Transported, and Stored 452

I WONDER... Is “Smart Water” Really a Smart Choice? 453

16.3 The Urinary System Maintains the Body’s Fluid and Solute Balance 458

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Why Is Salt Intake Imortant? 460

16.4 Life-Threatening Diseases Affect the Urinary System 462

ETHICS AND ISSUES: How Does a Urine Test Prove Drug Abuse? 463

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: What Are the Risks in Donating a Kidney? 465


17 The Endocrine System and Development 470

17.1 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers 472

17.2 The Endocrine Glands Secrete Directly into the Bloodstream 477

I WONDER... What is Precocious Puberty? 480

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Shrinking and Hormonal Imbalances 485

17.3 Development Takes Us from Infancy to Adulthood 490

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Ah, to Be Young Again… 494

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Has Your Endocrine System Been Disrupted Today? 495

18 The Reproductive Systems: Maintaining the Species 500

18.1 Survival of the Species Depends on Gamete Formation 502

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Man and Woman 502

18.2 The Male Reproductive System Produces, Stores, and Delivers Sperm 504

I WONDER... Why Are Circumcisions Performed? 510

18.3 The Female Reproductive System Produces and Nourishes Eggs 514

I WONDER... Can PMS Really Cause Mood Swings and Emotional Outbursts? 521

18.4 There Are Many Birth Control Choices 524

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Hormonal Controls: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly 527

ETHICS AND ISSUES: RU-486: A Chemical Abortion Fraught with Issues 528

18.5 Sexual Contact Carries a Danger: Sexually Transmitted Diseases 531

19 Pregnancy: Development from Conception to Newborn 538

19.1 Days 1 Through 14 Include Fertilization and Implantation 540

I WONDER... What Causes Twins, and How Do They Contribute to the Study of Epigenetics? 546

19.2 The Embryonic Stage Is Marked by Differentiation and Morphogenesis 547

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Is Morning Sickness Normal? 550

19.3 Fetal Development Is a Stage of Rapid Organ Growth 553

19.4 Labor Initiates the End of Pregnancy 559

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Prematurity—How Young Is Too Young? 561

ETHICS AND ISSUES: How Do We Respond to Intersexuality? 563

20 Inheritance, Genetics, and Molecular Biology 570

20.1 Traits Are Inherited in Specific Patterns 572

20.2 Modern Genetics Uncovers a Molecular Picture 578

20.3 The Central Dogma: Genes Direct the Formation of Proteins 582

20.4 Genetic Theory Is Put to Practical Use 585

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Individualized Medicine?! 588

I WONDER... Can We Create Super-Babies? 590

20.5 Biotechnology Has Far-Reaching Effects 591

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Are Genetically Modified Foods Safe for the Environment? Are They Healthy to Eat? 597

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Can Your Genetic Information Be Used Against You? 602

21 Populations Evolve in Ecosystems 608

21.1 The Theory of Evolution Is the Foundation of Biology 610

21.2 Natural Selection Has Far-Reaching Effects on Populations 614

I WONDER... How Can Darwin’s Theory Account for Sudden Evolutionary Changes? 616

HEALTH, WELLNESS, AND DISEASE: Does Climate Affect Evolutionary Rate? 617

21.3 Ecosystems Sustain Life 618

21.4 Population Growth Is Regulated by the Environment 634

I WONDER... How Many People Can the Earth Support? 636

21.5 Humans Have a Tremendous Impact on the Environment 636

WHAT A SCIENTIST SEES: Solid Reasons to Recycle 637

ETHICS AND ISSUES: Which Worldview Do You Have? 640

Appendix A: Periodic Table 646

B: Measurements 647

C: Answers to Self-Tests 649

Glossary 651

Index 657