Fundamentals of Menu Planning, Third Edition
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Fundamentals of Menu Planning, Third Edition presents a complete overview of key aspects of menu planning, including designing, writing, costing, marketing, and merchandising a menu. Reflecting the latest menu trends in the restaurant industry, the authors show how research, surveys, and sales analysis are key to menu planning and design. With updated nutrition and menu planning information, an expanded collection of sample menus, new appendices and resources, numerous forms, tables, and worksheets, and more practice problems, this guide is key to the success of the overall foodservice enterprise.


Paul J. McVety is Dean of Culinary Academics at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island.

BRADLEY J. WARE is a Professor in the College of Culinary Arts at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island.

CLAUDETTE LéVESQUE WARE is a Professor in the John Hazen White School of Arts and Sciences at Johnson & Wales University in Providence, Rhode Island.


Preface xi

Part 1 Evolution of the Menu 1

Chapter 1 New Trends in the Foodservice Industry 3

Foodservice Trends 4

Appetizers 5

Soups 7

Salads 8

Sandwiches 9

Entrées 10

Accompaniments 17

Desserts 18

Beverages 19

Tea Menus 21

For Review and Discussion 21

Chapter 2 Market Survey 23

Preliminary Steps 24

Areas of Analysis 24

For Review and Discussion 36

Chapter 3 Nutrition and Menu Planning 37

Nutrition Basics 38

Phytochemicals 42

Guidelines and Recommendations for Meeting Nutrient Needs 43

Food Pyramids 46

Other Food Guide Pyramids 49

Nutrition Labeling 49

Relationship of Nutrition to Health 54

Diabetes Type 1 and 2 56

Nutritional Implications for Menu Planning 56

Ingredients and Preparation 57

For Review and Discussion 60

Chapter 4 Foodservice Menus 61

Menu Styles 62

Breakfast Menus 62

Brunch Menus 63

Luncheon Menus 63

Dinner Menus 72

Tasting Menus 72

Special Occasion Menus 73

Ethnic Menus 73

Specialty Menus 78

Catering Menus 79

Room Service Menus 86

Institutional Menus 86

Wine Menus 88

Dessert Menus 88

Tea Menus 90

Lounge Menus 95

For Review and Discussion 95

Part 2 Financial Aspects of Menu Planning 97

Chapter 5 The Yield Test 99

Defining the Yield Test 100

Types of Yield Tests 101

Calculating a Yield Test 103

Edible Yields Percentage 106

Software Packages 110

For Review and Discussion 110

Chapter 6 Standard Recipes 111

Defining Standard Recipes in the Industry 112

Recording Recipes 113

Recipe Creativity 114

For Review and Discussion 116

Chapter 7 Recipe Costing 117

Assigning the Task of Recipe Costing 118

The Importance of Recipe Costing 118

Guidelines for Costing Out a Recipe 120

How to Cost Out a Recipe 121

Recipe Costing Software 129

For Review and Discussion 132

Part 3 Writing, Designing, and Merchandising the Menu 133

Chapter 8 Characteristics of a Menu 135

Issues for Consideration 136

Paper 136

Print 137

Color 140

Balance 140

Variety 143

Composition 147

Descriptive Copy 147

Truth-in-Menu 149

Menu Labeling 151

Listing of Items 152

Size of Menu 153

Cover Design 153

Menu Design Software 153

For Review and Discussion 154

Chapter 9 Sales History 155

Sales History Background 156

Benefits of the Scatter Sheet 158

How a Scatter Sheet Works 159

Production Sheet 159

Menu Engineering 161

Software Programs Available 162

For Review and Discussion 163

Chapter 10 Merchandising the Menu 165

Displaying Additional Information on the Menu 166

Listing Liquors 167

Wine Lists 167

Appetizers 167

Salads 170

Steaks 172

Seafood 172

Sandwiches 172

Specials 176

Desserts 176

Take-Out Service 176

Evaluating the Sales Menu 176

For Review and Discussion 181

Chapter 11 Foodservice Equipment Analysis 183

Guidelines for Selecting Equipment 184

Selecting Equipment with Advanced Technology 188

Foodservice Equipment Analysis 189

Guidelines for Designing a Hot Cooking Line 193

For Review and Discussion 195

Appendix A Descriptive Copy Exercise 197

Appendix B Descriptive Terms for Menus 200

Appendix C Words Frequently Misspelled on Students’ menus 201

Appendix D Culinary Terms 202

Appendix E Measurements 209

Appendix F A Practical Guide to the Nutrition Labeling Laws for the Restaurant Industry 210

Appendix G National Restaurant Association’s Accuracy in Menus 232

Appendix H Menu Marketing Characteristics 239

Appendix I Menu-Making Principles 240

Bibliography 243

Index 247