Beneath the Mask: An Introduction to Theories ofPersonality, Eighth Edition
Buy Rights Online Buy Rights

Rights Contact Login For More Details

More About This Title Beneath the Mask: An Introduction to Theories ofPersonality, Eighth Edition


Beneath the Mask presents classical theories of human nature while emphasizing the theorist's progression of ideas. The eighth edition continues to discuss the ideas of personality theorists developmentally. This account of personality theory incorporates the personal origins of ideas to highlight the links between the psychology of each theorist and that theorist's own psychology of persons. It also explores how the personal histories, conflicts, and intentions of the theorist entered that thinker's portrait of people.


Robert Sollod is currently Professor of Psychology at Cleveland State University. His research interests include personality theories and their origins, psychotherapy integration, and the relation of spirituality to psychotherapy. He is a member of the American Psychotherapy Association and the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration.


1. Basic Issues: How to Approach the Study of PersonalityTheories 1

A Useful Metaphor: The Mask and the Person Beneath 1

Beginning the Study of Personality: A Personal Note 2

One Truth or Many Perspectives? 3

Personality Theories as Creative Solutions to Personal Problems 5

What About Abnormal Psychology? 6

Personology Or Personality Theory? 8

Impact of Culture and Society 9

Three Major Tools for Evaluating Personality Theories 10

Additional Dimensions of Personality Theories 12

Some Welcoming Words 14

For Further Reading 14

Glossary 14

2. Sigmund Freud / Psychoanalysis: The Clinical Evidence 15

About Freud’s Clinical Psychoanalysis 15

A Personal Aside: Why Study Freud’s Ideas? 16

The Hysterical Neurosis of Bertha Pappenheim 17

“Clouds”: Self-Induced Hypnosis 19

Hypnosis and Hysteria: From Pathology to Cure 24

Frau Emmy Von N. 28

First Clue in the Discovery of Free Association: Freud Learns to Listen 30

The Theoretical Yield from Frau Emmy’s Therapy 32

The Evolution of Method: Fraülein Von R. 33

Second Clue to the Free Association Method: The Pressure or Concentration Technique 34

The Theoretical Yield from Fraülein Ilona Weiss’s Therapy 39

A Final Clue to the Free Association Method 41

Freud’s Continuing Theorizing about Hypnosis 42

Compromise Formation: The Meaning of Symptoms 42

Sexual Motives as the Basis of Conflict: Origins of the Hypothesis 44

Freud’s Integrity Questioned— and the Questioner Questioned 47

Personal Sources of the Hypothesis: Freud’s Self-Analysis 49

Psychosexual Development: Oedipus and Electra 53

The Complete Oedipal Complex 58

Psychosexual Stages: Libidinal Organization 63

Evaluating Clinical Psychoanalysis 67

Summary 69

For Further Reading 70

Glossary 71

3. Sigmund Freud / Psychoanalysis: The Dynamic Model of the Mind 74

About Freud’s Model of the Mind 74

Dreams as Wish Fulfillment 75

Personal Sources: Freud’s Father and Mother Dreams 76

Manifest and Latent Dream Content: The Mask 80

Four Processes of Dream Work 81

Study of the Dream: Theoretical Yield 84

The Reality Principle 88

The Meanings of the Unconscious in Psychoanalysis 89

Metapsychology of Repression 91

Instincts of the Unconscious 93

Characteristics of Instincts 93

Dualistic Division of the Instincts: Hunger versus Love 94

Behaviors Beyond the Pleasure Principle: The Clinical Evidence 97

Reduction of the Pleasure Principle to a Pleasure “Tendency” 98

Revision of Instinct Theory: Eros and Death 100

The Final Structural Model of the Mind 103

The Id 104

The Ego 104

The Superego 106

Id, Ego, Superego Interactions 109

Freud’s Changing Conceptions of Anxiety 110

Evaluating Theoretical Psychoanalysis 113

Summary 116

For Further Reading 117

Glossary 118

4. Alfred Adler / Individual Psychology 121

Adler’s Individual Psychology 121

Adler’s Boyhood Difficulties: Illness, Rejection, and the Fear of Death 122

Freud and Adler: Dissent over the Fundamental Human Motive 123

Adler’s Differences with Freud 124

On Human Nature—Adler, the Naϊıve Optimist, or Freud, the Realistic Pessimist?125

From Minus to Plus Self-Estimates 126

Masculine Protest: Not for Men Only 128

Social Interest and Adler’s Religious Values 129

Individuality, Social Interest and Style of Life: Vaihinger’s Idea of Fictional Finalism 129

Combining Vaihinger’s Ideas with His Own Theory 130

The Neurotic Personality: Overdoing the Search for Perfection 131

Social Interest and the Tasks of Life 135

Individuality, Social Interest, and Style of Life 137

Early Recollections as Indicators of Style of Life 138

Ordinal Position within the Family as Indicator of Style of Life 139

Evaluating Alfred Adler 141

Summary 143

For Further Reading 144

Glossary 145

5. Carl Gustav Jung / Analytical Psychology 147

About Jung’s Analytical Psychology 147

Experimental Study of Word Associations 148

Emotional Complex Indicators 149

Discovering a Case of Criminally Negligent Homicide through the Word Association Test 150

Jung’s Concept of Libido 152

The Principles of Equivalence and Entropy 152

Learning from Ancient Mythology 153

Visionary and Creative or Just Crazy? 154

Jung and Freud: From Admiration to Bitterness 159

Jung’s Philosophical Background 160

Structure of the Psyche: Ego, Personal, and Collective Unconscious 160

Archetypes and Their Origins 162

Archetypes, Popular Culture, and Society 166

Jungian Attitude Types: Freud the Extrovert and Adler the Introvert 166

The Functions of the Psyche 167

The Extrovert Types 168

The Introvert Types 170

The Process of Individuation 171

Development of the Self: A Teleological View of Life 172

Evaluating Carl Jung 174

Summary 176

For Further Reading 177

Glossary 177

6. Anna Freud / Widening the Scope of Psychoanalysis: Ego Psychology 179

About Ego Psychology 179

Legitimizing Ego Psychology 180

Personal Sources: From Being Unwanted to Becoming Indispensable 180

Widening the Scope of Analysis: Little Patients’ Problems 185

Making the Child Analyzable: The Preparatory Phase 186

The Child Analysis: Proper Techniques 188

The Theoretical Yield: New Meanings for Familiar Analytic Concepts 192

The Ego Defends Itself: Profiles of Mastery and Vulnerability 199

A Final Word on Anna Freud 204

The Legacy of Anna Freud 204

Evaluating the Psychoanalytic Ego Psychologists 205

Summary 205

For Further Reading 206

Glossary 206

7. Melanie Klein & Donald W. Winnicott / The PsychoanalyticHeritage:Object Relations Theories 208

About Object Relations Theories 208


What are Psychoanalytic Object Relations Theories? 209

Psychoanalysis as Pedagogy: Educating Erich 209

Klein’s Discovery of “Phantasy” 209

Development of the Object World 211

Infantile Sadism and the Oedipus Complex 212

How It All Turns Out: Klein’s First Theory of the Superego 215

Anxiety: First Modifications of Klein’s Developmental Theory 217

Hate Versus Guilt: Repairing the Ravages of Sadism 219

Paranoic and Depressive Positions: Klein’s First Theory 220

Manic and Depressive Positions in Adult Psychopathology 221

Love, Guilt, and Reparation 224

Projection + Identification = Splitting Revisited 225

Reparation: The Link between Positions 229

Envy and Gratitude: The Forever Generous, Tolerant, and Bountiful Breast 230

Defending Against Envy: The Most Deadly of Sins 232

Some Personal Sources of Klein’s Vision of the Infant’s World 234

A Final Word on Melanie Klein 237


A Commonsensical and Creative Child Analyst 237

Unconventional Psychoanalysis: The Pediatric Consultation Model 240

Early Theory: The Kleinian Influence 245

Primitive Personality Development: Winnicott Style 247

Environmental Emphasis: “There’s No Such Thing as a Baby” 249

Exploring Deeper Questions 257

Personal Sources from Winnicott’s Childhood 258

A Final Word on D. W. Winnicott 261

Evaluating Object Relations Theory 261

Summary 262

For Further Reading 265

Glossary 265

8. Erik Homburger Erikson / Psychoanalytic Ego Psychology: The Centrality of Identity 267

About Erikson’s Ego Psychology 267

Identity’s Architect  268

Life History Sources of the Identity Hypothesis 270

Clinical Sources of the Identity Hypothesis: War Veterans 271

Anthropological Sources of the Identity Hypothesis: The Oglala Sioux 273

The Ego Identity Hypothesis and Psychoanalytic Theory 274

Psychosocial Development: An Epigenetic Sequence 275

Viewing Erikson’s Epigenetic Theory of Identity Formation 276

The Life Cycle: Eight Stages of Human Development 278

Acquiring a Sense of Trust versus Mistrust: Hope 280

Acquiring a Sense of Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt: Will 281

Acquiring a Sense of Initiative versus Guilt: Purpose 283

Acquiring a Sense of Industry versus Inferiority: Competence 284

Acquiring a Sense of Identity versus Role Confusion: Fidelity 285

Acquiring a Sense of Intimacy versus Isolation: Love 287

Acquiring a Sense of Generativity versus Stagnation: Care 288

Acquiring Ego Integrity versus Despair: Wisdom 289

Applying Erikson’s Stage Theory 291

Some Concluding Remarks on Erikson 291

Evaluating Erik Erikson 292

Summary 293

For Further Reading 294

Glossary 294

9. Harry Stack Sullivan / Interpersonal Theory 298

About Sullivan’s Interpersonal Theory 298

Three Modes of Experience: Prototaxic, Parataxic, Syntaxic 299

The Development of Personality: An Interpersonal Emphasis 301

Differentiation of Self from the Universe 302

Personal Sources of Sullivan’s Emphasis on Human Relationships 303

Personifications of Self: Good-Me, Bad-Me, Not-Me 309

The Self-System: Security Operations 311

Selective Inattention 313

Me-You Personifications 313

Developmental Epochs: From Infancy to Late Adolescence 314

Evaluating Harry Stack Sullivan 318

Summary 319

For Further Reading 320

Glossary 320

10. Karen Horney / Psychoanalytic Social Psychology 322

About Horney’s Social Psychoanalytic Approach 322

Anxious in a Hostile World 323

Neurotic1 Needs and Trends 325

Personal Sources of the Basic Anxiety and Basic Hostility Hypotheses 326

An Illustrative Case: Clare, An Unwanted Child 331

Despised Real Self, Ideal Self, and the Actual Self 332

The Core Neurotic Conflict: Alienation from Real Self 334

Interpersonal Coping Strategies: Moves Toward, Against, and Away from Others 335

Auxiliary Conflict Solutions 339

Horney’s Feminist, Culturally Based Modifications of Freudian Theory 341

A Final Word on Karen Horney 343

Summary 343

For Further Reading 344

Glossary 344

11. Gordon W. Allport / Humanistic Trait and Self Theory 346

About Allport’s Humanistic Trait and Self Theory 346

Was Young Allport Misunderstood by Freud Himself? 347

“How Shall a Psychological Life History Be Written?” 348

Toward a Personalistic Psychology 349

Personal Sources of Allport’s Emphasis on Uniqueness and Independence 350

Personality: Allport’s Definition 352

Personal Documents: An Idiographic Approach to Life History 356

An Illustrative Case: Analysis of Jenny Gove Masterson’s Letters 358

Criticisms and Allport’s Responses 361

“Traits Revisited”: Heuristic Realism 362

The Mature, Healthy Personality 362

Functional Autonomy: Allport’s Theory of Motivation 366

Evaluating Gordon Allport 368

Summary 369

For Further Reading 370

Glossary 371

12. Rollo May / Existential Phenomenology 373

About Rollo May’s Existential Phenomenology 373

A Lonely Young Man, Looking for Answers to Deep Questions 374

Existential Phenomenological Psychology and Psychotherapy 377

Contributions of European Philosophy 377

Ontological Principles: “Mrs. Hutchens” 378

The Problem of Nothingness 383

Personal Sources of May’s Existentialism 385

Love and Will 388

Four Forms of Loving 388

Good and Evil 391

Will 392

Freedom 394

Destiny 395

Evaluating Rollo May 397

Summary 398

For Further Reading 399

Glossary 400

13. Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers / Humanistic Self-Actualization Theory 402

About Maslow and Rogers’ Humanistic Psychologies 402


What About the Healthy Personality and the Striving for Full Self-Realization? 403

The Origin of Maslow’s Interest in Psychological Health 404

Personal Sources of the Hypothesis: “In Pursuit of Angels” 406

Characteristics of Self-Actualizing Persons 408

Learning from Critical Mentor Figures 410

The Hierarchy of Needs: From Deficiency to Growth Motivation and Self-Actualization 410

Beyond Self-Actualization: The B-Values 419

Humanistic Psychology: The Third Force 421

Toward a Transpersonal Viewpoint 421


A Harbinger of Things to Come 422

Rogers’ Theory of Personality and Behavior 423

Psychotherapist as Self-Actualization Facilitator 426

Development of the Nondirective Viewpoint 428

Personal Sources of Rogers’ Emphasis on Freedom and Self-Worth 430

Early Nondirective View: Too Much Freedom 433

Client-Centered Therapy: Empathic Understanding 434

Experiential Therapy: The Conditions of Personality Change 434

Personality Changes Evoked by the Therapeutic Relationship 436

The Fully Functioning Person: Ideal Mental Health 437

Rogers’ Model of Development 438

The Importance of Approval 438

Incongruence between Self and Experience 440

Personality Disorganization 440

Some Criticisms of Rogers’ Approach 441

Operationalizing the Concept of Self: Q-Sort Methodology 441

Evaluating Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers 443

Summary 444

For Further Reading 445

Glossary 446

14. George A. Kelly / Personal Construct Theory 449

About George A. Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory 449

Uncovering a Person’s Constructs of Personality 450

Grid Form of the Rep Test: A Person’s Own Personality Theory 452

Kelly: The Inventive Psychological Tinkerer 455

Each Person is a Scientist 457

Kelly’s Fundamental Postulate and 11 Corollaries 457

Construction and Individuality Corollaries: The Person as a Process 458

Hierarchy of Experience: Organization and Dichotomy Corollaries 458

Choice, Range, and Experience Corollaries: Limitations of Anticipation 459

Modulation and Fragmentation Corollaries: Variation versus Stability 460

Commonality and Sociality Corollaries: Shared Experience 461

The Mask Metaphor Again 462

The CPC Cycle: Circumspection, Preemption, and Control/Choice 463

Some Traditional Personality Variables as Kelly Recast Them 466

Evaluating Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory 468

Summary 469

For Further Reading 470

Glossary 470

15. Albert Bandura / Social Cognitive Theory 472

About Social Cognitive Theory 472

Misconstrued as a Behaviorist 473

What About Bandura’s Own Life? 480

Developmental Phases of Self-Efficacy 481

Selective Activation of Self-Controls 488

Bandura’s Model of Anxiety and Repression 489

Does Chance Play a Role in Life? 491

Bandura’s Theories and Today’s World 492

Evaluating the Approach of Bandura 492

Summary 493

For Further Reading 494

Glossary 494

16. Hans Eysenck / Biologically Based Typology 496

About Eysenck’s Biologically Based Typology 496

Research Psychologist as Scientist and a Bit of a Maverick 497

Childhood Sources of Eysenck’s Intellectual Independence 497

Early Descriptive Researches: Introversion-Extroversion and Neuroticism 501

Historical Antecedents of Introversion-Extroversion Dimensions 503

Pavlov’s Dogs: Excitation-Inhibition Temperaments 504

Hull’s Drive Theory: Individual Differences in Performance 509

Individual Differences and Eysenck’s Typology 510

Arousability and the Ascending Reticular Activation System (ARAS) 512

Translation of Excitation-Inhibition into Arousal Concepts 514

A Direct Test of the Arousal Theory: Stimulant and Depressant Drugs 519

Acquisition of Neurosis: The Socialization of Introverts and Extroverts 519

Psychoticism: Psychiatric Diagnosis Revisited 521

Psychoticism, Crime, and Genetics 522

The “Big Five”: A Model Based on Factor Analysis 526

Evaluating Eysenck’s Typology 528

Summary 529

For Further Reading 531

Glossary 531

17. Edward O. Wilson / Evolutionary Psychology 534

About Evolutionary Psychology 534

The Roots of a Naturalist 535

Encountering Lorenz and His Ideas 538

Darwin’s (and Wallace’s) Theory of Natural Selection 539

Wilson Encounters Hamilton’s Ideas 541

From Insect Societies to Sociobiology to Human Nature 542

Evolutionary Concepts in Classical Personality Theories 544

Further Developments in Evolutionary Psychological Thinking 549

Human Nature Does Exist 553

Evolutionary Psychology from a Broader, More Objective Perspective 554

Some Misconceptions About Evolutionary Psychology 555

How Might an Evolutionary Psychologist Proceed? 557

An Actual Example—Not of Postdiction, but of Prediction—Sort of 558

Evolutionary Psychology and Psychopathology 561

A Final Word on Evolutionary Psychology 562

Summary 564

For Further Reading 564

Glossary 565

Bibliography 567

Photo Credits 585

Name Index 587

Subject Index 591