Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold
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More About This Title Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold


The definitive guide to understanding and managing the effects of water on buildings
Water in Buildings: An Architect's Guide to Moisture and Mold is a detailed and highly useful reference to help architects and other design professionals create dry, healthy environments, without jeopardizing a project with poor liability management. Much more than a book of "quick fixes," this practical guide illuminates an essential understanding of the "whys" of moisture problems, including valuable information on how water behaves and how its performance can be anticipated and managed in building design.
With a special emphasis on water's role in creating mold, an issue of growing concern and liability, Water in Buildings offers the most up-to-date information on rainwater management, below-grade water management, foundations, wall and roof construction, mechanical systems, moisture, and much more! Providing authoritative guidance to designers and builders, this definitive guide features:
* Clear explanations of how water interacts with building materials and equipment
* An in-depth exploration of the paths of leaks
* Numerous case studies on such well-known structures as Mount Vernon, Independence Hall, and Wingspan (Frank Lloyd Wright)
* Numerous descriptive drawings and photographs


WILLIAM B. ROSE is a Research Architect at the Building Research Council at the University of Illinois. His research, which focuses on moisture and its effects on buildings, is used by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and other gencies. He serves as a consultant to museums and historic buildings on moisture problems, including Independence Hall, Frank Lloyd Wright's Unity Temple, and Thomas Jefferson's Poplar Forest. He has instructed hundreds of architects on the power of water through the American Institute of Architect's continuing education series, Water in Buildings.


Preface xi

Introduction 1

Aim 1

Audience 3

Sources 5

Language 9

Units 10

Summaries of chapters 12

1 Building Science 15

Definition 15

Background: Building science Institutions 16

Building science and architecture 18

Building science and construction 19

Building science and engineering 20

Building science and the building codes 21

The methods of building science 22

The prerequisites of building science 25

2 Water 33

Molecular structure 33

Hydrogen bonds 35

Surface tension 36

Water vapor 37

Psychrometrics 45

Measuring temperature and humidity in the air 50

The fourth phase: an introduction 51

3 Water And Building Materials 57

Background 57

Post–world war ii 66

1952 condensation conference 68

The diffusion paradigm 70

The profile method 78

Fundamental rule of material wetness 87

Rethinking moisture control strategies: Moisture engineering 88

4 Roofs and Facades 95

Introduction 95

Rainfall intensity, slope, and watertightness 95

Roof surfaces 99

Ice dams 113

Parapets 118

Gutters 119

Building facades 121

Windows 130

Summary 131

5 Soils and Foundations 133

Water in soil 135

Hydraulic conductivity 142

Surface flow144

Drains 145

Basements 152

Crawl spaces 158

Slab construction 166

6 Walls 171

Introduction 171

Thermal wetting and drying 173

Solar vapor drive 174

Airflow in wall assemblies 175

Vapor barriers: Compact and cavity assemblies 178

Vapor retarder 179

Design for drying or against wetting? 182

Insulating historic buildings 184

Rising damp 185

7 Attics 189

Introduction 189

Historical background 190

Moisture 199

Ice damming 202

Shingle durability 203

Summer cooling 204

Vent design 204

Truss rise 205

Summary 206

8 Mechanical Systems 209

Comfort 209

Humidity standards for museums 212

Characterizing humidity 216

Moisture generation 217

Ventilation 220

Combustion 220

Air conditioning 226

Plumbing and pipe bursting 228

9 Rot And Mold 233

Introduction 233

Mold 235

Mold measurement 237

Dry deposition of mold material 240

Health effects of mold 241

Mold remediation 247

Summary and final comments 248

Appendix A ASHRAE Coefficients 253

Appendix B Unit Conversions 255

References 257

Index 265