IT Audit, Control, and Security
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More About This Title IT Audit, Control, and Security


When it comes to computer security, the role of auditors today has never been more crucial. Auditors must ensure that all computers, in particular those dealing with e-business, are secure. The only source for information on the combined areas of computer audit, control, and security, the IT Audit, Control, and Security describes the types of internal controls, security, and integrity procedures that management must build into its automated systems. This very timely book provides auditors with the guidance they need to ensure that their systems are secure from both internal and external threats.


Robert R. Moeller (Evanston, IL), CPA, CISA, PMP, CISSP, is the founder of Compliance and control Systems Associates, a consulting firm that specialized in internal audit and project management with a strong understanding of information systems, corporate governance and security. He has over 30 years of experience in internal auditing, ranging from launching new internal audit functions in several companies to serving as audit director for a Fortune 50 corporation. He held positions with Grant Thornton (National Director of Computer Auditing) and Sears Roebuck (Audit Director). A frequently published author and professional speaker, Moeller provides insights into many of the new rules impacting internal auditors today as well as the challenges audit committees face when dealing with Sarbanes-Oxley, internal controls, and their internal auditors. Moeller is the former president of the Institute of Internal Auditor's Chicago chapter and has served on the IIA's International Advanced Technology Committee. He is also the former chair of the AICPA's Computer Audit Subcommittee.


Introduction xiii


Chapter 1: SOx and the COSO Internal Controls Framework 3

Roles and Responsibilities of IT Auditors 4

Importance of Effective Internal Controls and COSO 6

COSO Internal Control Systems Monitoring Guidance 21

Sarbanes-Oxley Act 22

Wrapping It Up: COSO Internal Controls and SOx 31

Notes 31

Chapter 2: Using CobiT to Perform IT Audits 32

Introduction to CobiT 33

CobiT Framework 35

Using CobiT to Assess Internal Controls 39

Using CobiT in a SOx Environment 51

CobiT Assurance Framework Guidance 54

CobiT in Perspective 55

Notes 55

Chapter 3: IIA and ISACA Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing 57

Internal Auditing’s International Professional Practice Standards 58

Content of the IPPF and the IIA International Standards 61

Strongly Recommended IIA Standards Guidance 75

ISACA IT Auditing Standards Overview 76

Codes of Ethics: The IIA and ISACA 79

Notes 81

Chapter 4: Understanding Risk Management Through COSO ERM 82

Risk Management Fundamentals 83

Quantitative Risk Analysis Techniques 92

IIA and ISACA Risk Management Internal Audit Guidance 94

COSO ERM: Enterprise Risk Management 97

IT Audit Risk and COSO ERM 113

Notes 115

Chapter 5: Performing Effective IT Audits 117

IT Audit and the Enterprise Internal Audit Function 118

Organizing and Planning IT Audits 122

Developing and Preparing Audit Programs 127

Gathering Audit Evidence and Testing Results 132

Workpapers and Reporting IT Audit Results 142

Preparing Effective IT Audits 148

Notes 149


Chapter 6: General Controls in Today’s IT Environments 153

Importance of IT General Controls 154

IT Governance General Controls 157

IT Management General Controls 158

IT Technical Environment General Controls 174

Note 174

Chapter 7: Infrastructure Controls and ITIL Service

Management Best Practices 175

ITIL Service Management Best Practices 176

ITIL’s Service Strategies Component 179

ITIL Service Design 181

ITIL Service Transition Management Processes 189

ITIL Service Operation Processes 194

Service Delivery Best Practices 198

Auditing IT Infrastructure Management 199

Note 200

Chapter 8: Systems Software and IT Operations General Controls 201

IT Operating System Fundamentals 202

Features of a Computer Operating System 206

Other Systems Software Tools 209

Chapter 9: Evolving Control Issues: Wireless Networks, Cloud Computing, and Virtualization 214

Understanding and Auditing IT Wireless Networks 215

Understanding Cloud Computing 220

Storage Management Virtualization 225


Chapter 10: Selecting, Testing, and Auditing IT Applications 229

IT Application Control Elements 230

Selecting Applications for IT Audit Reviews 239

Performing an Applications Controls Review: Preliminary Steps 242

Completing the IT Applications Controls Audit 249

Application Review Case Study: Client-Server Budgeting System 255

Auditing Applications under Development 258

Importance of Reviewing IT Application Controls 266

Notes 266

Chapter 11: Software Engineering and CMMi 267

Software Engineering Concepts 267

CMMi: Capability Maturity Model for Integration 269

CMMi Benefits 280

IT Audit, Internal Control, and CMMi 281

Note 282

Chapter 12: Auditing Service-Oriented Architectures and Record Management Processes 283

Service-Oriented Computing and Service-Driven Applications 284

IT Auditing in SOA Environments 294

Electronic Records Management Internal Control Issues and Risks 300

IT Audits of Electronic Records Management Processes 301

Notes 303

Chapter 13: Computer-Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques 304

Understanding Computer-Assisted Audit Tools and Techniques 305

Determining the Need for CAATTs 308

CAATT Software Tools 311

Steps to Building Effective CAATTs 326

Importance of CAATTs for Audit Evidence Gathering 327

Chapter 14: Continuous Assurance Auditing, OLAP, and XBRL 329

Implementing Continuous Assurance Auditing 330

Benefits of Continuous Assurance Auditing Tools 338

Data Warehouses, Data Mining, and OLAP 339

XBRL: The Internet-Based Extensible Markup Language 346

Newer Technologies, the Continuous Close, and IT Audit 351

Notes 351


Chapter 15: IT Controls and the Audit Committee 355

Role of the Audit Committee for IT Auditors 356

Audit Committee Approval of Internal Audit Plans and Budgets 357

Audit Committee Briefings on IT Audit Issues 359

Audit Committee Review and Action on Significant IT Audit Findings 360

IT Audit and the Audit Committee 362

Chapter 16: Val IT, Portfolio Management, and Project Management 363

Val IT: Enhancing the Value of IT Investments 364

IT Systems Portfolio and Program Management 371

Project Management for IT Auditors 374

Notes 383

Chapter 17: Compliance with IT-Related Laws and Regulations 384

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 386

Computer Security Act of 1987 387

Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act 390

HIPAA: Healthcare and Much More 395

Other Personal Privacy and Security Legislative Requirements 403

IT-Related Laws, Regulations, and Audit Standards 404

Chapter 18: Understanding and Reviewing Compliance with ISO Standards 407

Background and Importance of ISO Standards in a World of Global Commerce 408

ISO Standards Overview 410

ISO 19011 Quality Management Systems Auditing 419

ISO Standards and IT Auditors 421

Notes 421

Chapter 19: Controls to Establish an Effective IT Security Environment 422

Generally Accepted Security Standards 423

Effective IT Perimeter Security 429

Establishing an Effective, Enterprise-Wide Security Strategy 430

Best Practices for IT Audit and Security 432

Notes 433

Chapter 20: Cybersecurity and Privacy Controls 434

IT Network Security Fundamentals 435

IT Systems Privacy Concerns 443

PCI-DSS Fundamentals 446

Auditing IT Security and Privacy 447

Security and Privacy in the Internal Audit Department 448

Notes 453

Chapter 21: IT Fraud Detection and Prevention 454

Understanding and Recognizing Fraud in an IT Environment 455

Red Flags: Fraud Detection Signs for IT and Other Internal Auditors 456

Public Accounting’s Role in Fraud Detection 461

IIA Standards and ISACA Materials for Detecting and Investigating Fraud 462

IT Audit Fraud Risk Assessments 464

IT Audit Fraud Investigations 467

IT Fraud Prevention Processes 468

Fraud Detection and the IT Auditor 471

Notes 471

Chapter 22: Identity and Access Management 472

Importance of Identity and Access Management 473

Identity Management Processes 474

Separation of Duties Identify Management Controls 477

Access Management Provisioning 478

Authentication and Authorization 479

Auditing Identity and Access Management Processes 481

Note 485

Chapter 23: Establishing Effective IT Disaster Recovery Processes 486

IT Disaster and Business Continuity Planning Today 487

Building and Auditing an IT Disaster Recovery Plan 489

Building the IT Disaster Recovery Plan 497

Disaster Recovery Planning and Service Level Agreements 503

Newer Disaster Recovery Plan Technologies: Data Mirroring Techniques 505

Auditing Business Continuity Plans 506

Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning Going Forward 508

Notes 508

Chapter 24: Electronic Archiving and Data Retention 509

Elements of a Successful Electronic Records Management Process 510

Electronic Documentation Standards 516

Implementing Electronic IT Data Archiving 517

Auditing Electronic Document Retention and Archival Processes 519

Chapter 25: Business Continuity Management, BS 25999, and ISO 27001 521

IT Business Continuity Management Planning Needs Today 522

BS 25999 Good Practice Guidelines 524

Auditing BCM Processes 540

Linking the BCM with Other Standards and Processes 543

Notes 543

Chapter 26: Auditing Telecommunications and IT Communications Networks 544

Network Security Concepts 545

Effective IT Network Security Controls 549

Auditing a VPN Installation 555

Note 557

Chapter 27: Change and Patch Management Controls 558

IT Change Management Processes 559

Auditing IT Change and Patch Management Controls 573

Notes 576

Chapter 28: Six Sigma and Lean Technologies 577

Six Sigma Background and Concepts 578

Implementing Six Sigma 580

Lean Six Sigma 587

Notes 590

Chapter 29: Building an Effective IT Internal Audit Function 591

Establishing an IT Internal Audit Function 592

Internal Audit Charter: An Important IT Audit Authorization 593

Role of the Chief Audit Executive 595

IT Audit Specialists 596

IT Audit Managers and Supervisors 598

Internal and IT Audit Policies and Procedures 599

Organizing an Effective IT Audit Function 601

Importance of a Strong IT Audit Function 604

Note 605

Chapter 30: Professional Certifications: CISA, CIA, and More 606

Certified Information Systems Auditor Credentials 607

Certified Information Security Manager Credentials 609

Certificate in the Governance of Enterprise IT 611

Certified Internal Auditor Responsibilities and Requirements 612

Beyond the CIA: Other IIA Certifications 623

CISSP Information Systems Security Professional Certification 628

Certified Fraud Examiner Certification 628

ASQ Internal Audit Certifications 629

Other Internal Auditor Certifications 630

Note 631

Chapter 31: Quality Assurance Auditing and ASQ Standards 632

Duties and Responsibilities of Quality Auditors 633

Role of the Quality Auditor 635

Performing ASQ Quality Audits 638

Quality Assurance Reviews of IT Audit Functions 641

Future Directions for Quality Assurance Auditing 647

Notes 648

Index 649