Regulating The Peasantry (2020, 1037 pages)
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English

The role of the State in the economy and society world-wide has become a subject of intense debate. Yet, the historical basis for such policies or state actions in Africa, is far from being clearly understood or even comprehensively theorized.
This book identifies and explains the political historical forces that underlie such State regulation or policies in the Agricultural Sector of one major African country – Nigeria. It also examines the impacts of these policies or state regulation on different social classes and groups, especially the peasantry.
The book reveals that the various social classes and groups contested every step of the agrarian policies, right from their agenda setting to actual implementation. Consequently, the contestations affected drastically the policies and outcomes in such a way that the original goals were lost. It further goes beyond these decades of regulating the peasantry to examine the larger implications of the state regulation policies for development, internal security, peace, poverty eradication and inclusive growth in contemporary Nigeria

English

Dr. Dan Mou is currently the Executive Chairman, Centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity (CEPEDEO), Abuja, Nigeria. He holds a B.Sc. Hons. Political Science (1979). University of Ibadan, Nigeria; M.A. (1982) and Ph.D. (1986), University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A. specializing in Public Policy Analysis and African Politics. He also has a Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), International Law and Diplomacy (2013), Pacific Western University, Colorado, U.S.A. and another Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), Business Administration (2013), Cornerstone University, Jerusalem, Israel.
He lectured at the University of Jos, Nigeria and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A., before joining the Presidency in Nigeria in 1989, where his positions included: Director (Narcotics Drugs Control); Director (Special Duties), Director (Monitoring and Evaluation), and later appointed the Secretary, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP). He also served as Director, Nigeria Air Force, and Director (Human Resources) Ministry of Defence, as well as Director (Human Resources, Inspectorate and Management Services), Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, he served as a Member, Presidential Jobs Board, State House, The Presidency, Abuja, Nigeria.
Dr. Mou further served as Special Adviser (National Security Affairs) to the National Security Advisers in the Presidency, under three consecutive Nigerian Governments. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and books. His bestsellers are: National Security and Democratic Governance in Nigeria: From Obasanjo to Jonathan Administrations; National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria; Making of An African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes One and Two; Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa; Serving the Nation as a Calling: How Experts can Influence Public Policies Without Being in Power, Volumes One Two; and National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Post-Military Rule Nigeria Volumes One and Two.
Dr. Mou’s other best sellers are Securing of an African Giant: National Security, Good Governance and Nation Building in Nigeria, Volumes One and Two; Without Vision the People Perish: Confronting Public Policy Challenges to African States and Leaders; Winning Poverty Battle: Poverty Eradication and Inclusive Growth in Nigeria and Politics of Religious Accommodation: Internal Security & Religious Tolerance in Nigeria, co-authored with his daughter, Dr. Seseer P. Mou. His marriage to Mimidoo Osewe Mou is blessed with children.
e-mail: [email protected]


English

Table of Contents
Dedication … … iii
Endorsements of Dr. Dan Mou’s Books … xv
Acknowledgments … … xxviii
Preface … … … xli
List of Maps … … … xlii
List of Tables … … … xlii
Abbreviations … … … xlviii

PART ONE:
INTRODUCTION, RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Chapter I: Introduction: State, Capital Accumulation and Peasant Agriculture 2
- Nationalist Movements and Political
Promises … … 3
- Statement of the Research Problem 10
- Development and the Peasantry … 13
- Propositions to be Investigated … 25
- Significance of the Study … 28
- Synopsis of the Chapters … 31


Chapter II: Research Design and Methodology 61
- Research Design and Methodology 61
- Objective Versus Subjective Approaches 61
- Population of Interest … 68
- Data Collection Procedures … 70
- Sampling the Peasants … 76
- Problems Encountered and Attempted Solutions … … … 83
- Modes of Analysis … … 93
PART TWO:
REGULATING THE PEASANTRY

Chapter III: Regulating the Peasantry:
A Framework for Analysis … 106
- Introduction … … 106
- Neutrality and the Common Good State 110
- Corporatism and the Common Good State 116
- Dependent or Autonomous State … 124
- Dependence and Relative Autonomy:
Neo-Marxist Approaches to the State
and State Power … … 124
- State Autonomy: State-Centered Approaches to The State and State Power … 145
- The State and State Power in Post-Colonial Societies … … 145
- The Overdeveloped State Debate 145
- The Overdeveloped Post-Colonial State and
Social Classes … … 149
- The Soft Post-Colonial State and Cultural
Pluralism … … 156
- Irrational State and Rational Peasants 163
- The State as Relay … 171
- The State, Capital Accumulation and the
Peasantry: A Post-Structural Perspective 178
- Conclusion … … 182

Chapter IV: Colonialism, Peasants and Order 236
- Introduction … … 236
- The Colonial State, The Peasantry and
Social Order … … 237
- Peasant-State Relations in Nigeria
Before World War II … 251
- Colonial Economic Crisis and State Action 262
- Conclusion … … 280
Chapter V: The State, Legitimization and the Peasantry: Expropriation, Appropriation
and Social Transformation … 294
- Introduction … … 294
- The State, Price Stabilization and the
Peasantry: Extraction and Accumulation
of Peasant Surpluses … 296
- The State, National Development and
the Peasantry: Surplus Appropriation
and Social Transformation … 307
- Conclusion … … 337

Chapter VI: Oil, Peasants and Regimes: Bureaucratic Influence and State Policy 360
- Introduction … … 360
- Persistent State Intervention, Oil Boom
and the Crisis of Peasant Production 364
- Alternative Explanations of Nigeria
Agricultural Crisis … … 372
- The State, the New Nigerian Commodity Boards and the Peasantry: Continuity and Change 381
- Political Basis for the Survival of the
Boards since 1977 … … 387
- Operations of the New Nigerian Commodity Boards: From Surpluses to Deficits 394
- The New Search for Alliances: The Commodity Boards, Crop Producers and
Local Processors … … 402
- Conclusion … … 409

PART THREE:
STATE REGULATIONS, PEASANT PERCEPTIONS AND RURAL STRATIFICATION

Chapter VII: State Regulation, Peasant Perceptions
and Rural Stratification: Gwer Division, Nigeria … … 440
- Introduction … … 440
- Research Context and Setting: Basic
Facts About Gwer Division … 442
- Data Analysis and Discussion … 451
- Peasant Perceptions of Inequality in
the Boards Policies and Around Them 455
- Peasant Perceptions of the Other (Non-
Marketing) Functions of the Boards 457
- Social Constraints and Economic Rationality:
Peasant Household Marketing Decisions 459
- Surviving with the Boards: Continuity
and Change in Peasant Crop Production 462
- Peasant Perceptions of Their Duties and Rights Regarding the State in Gwer Division 465
- State Regulation and Rural Stratification 466
- Research Findings in Comparative
Perspective … … 470
- Conclusion … … 475

Chapter VIII: Regulating the Peasantry:
General Reflections … 509
- Towards a Search for the More
Encompassing Approach to the State 512
- Recapitulation … … 518
- Policy Implications … … 530
- Suggestions for Future Research 535

PART FOUR:
BEYOND REGULATING THE PEASANTRY

Chapter IX: Beyond Regulating the Peasantry 1:
Internal Security, Poverty Eradication and
Inclusive Growth in Nigeria Today 550
- Introduction … … 550
- The purpose … … 553
- Developing a Philosophy of Good
Governance … … 556
- Internal Security and Scope of Inclusive Growth … … 561
- Government Programmes and Managing
Political Conflicts … … 566
- Strategies for Managing Political Conflicts 570
- Dynamics of Poverty, Job Creation and
Poverty Eradication … .. 573
- The Concept of Inclusive Growth and Development … … 579
- Governance and Inclusive Growth 584
- Policy Recommendations … 602
- Conclusion … … 607
Chapter X: Beyond Regulating the Peasantry 2: Peace, Security and Sustainable
Development in Nigeria Today … 631
- Introduction … … 631
- Conceptual Articulations … 634
- Peace … … 635
- Security … … 638
- The Captured National Security System 644
- The Autonomous National Security System 645
- The Relatively Autonomous National Security System … … 645
- Peace, Security and Sustainable Development: The Nigerian Experiences … 653
- Diagnosis of the Nigerian Experiences 655
- The Colonial Experience … 655
- The Political Experience … 659
- The Economic Experience … 664
- The Social Experience … 673
- The Religious Experience … 678
- The Governmental Experience … 684
- Public Enterprises and Social Services 684
- Summary and Conclusion … 688
Bibliography … … … 701

APPENDIX I … … … 760
PROPOSAL FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL EMPOWERMENT AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH COMMISSION TO CARTER FOR 71% (SEVENTY ONE PERCENT) OF NIGERIANS STILL IN MASS POVERTY, EXCLUDED FROM ENJOYING DIVIDENDS OF DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT IN THEIR OWN COUNTRY: Being Paper Prepared for the President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR, as a Reaction to the Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty and Excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in Nigeria, dated 16th March, 2016.

APPENDIX II … … … 817
INTERNAL SECURITY, POVERTY ERADICATION AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH: A CASE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL POVERTY ERADICATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION IN NIGERIA: Prepared for the President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, HIS EXCELLENCY PRESIDENT MUHAMMADU BUHARI, GCFR, as a Reaction to the Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty and excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in their own Country, dated 21st September, 2017.
APPENDIX III … … … 840
A CASE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A FEDERAL MINISTRY OF POVERTY ERADICATION AND SOCIAL INCLUSION IN NIGERIA: Being a Private Memo Prepared for The President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR to Tackle the Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty (71%), and Excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in Nigeria forcing Many of them to Flock to Foreign Nations Illegally dated 30th November, 2017.
APPENDIX IV … … … 877
REQUEST TO PARTNER WITH THE HONOURABLE MINISTER, HAJIA SADIYA UMAR-FAROUQ AND FEDERAL MINISTRY OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS, DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Being a Proposal Submitted to Hajia Sadiya Umar-Farouq, Honourable Minister of the newly created Federal Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Disaster Management and Social Development, Abuja, Nigeria; Offering to Collaborate with her and the Ministry she now holds which Dr. Dan Mou sent several Memoranda to the President and Vice-President of Nigeria, before they finally agreed and created it, dated 30th October, 2019.



Appendix V: … … … 890
Political Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare: The Politics of Agrarian Marketing and Commodity Boards in Nigeria: Peasant Interview Schedule.
Appendix VI: … … … 907
Administrative Department

Appendix VII: … … … 911
The Politics of Agricultural Marketing and Commodity
Boards in Nigeria

Appendix VIII: … … … 914
Commodity Boards Decree 1977 Arrangement of Sections

About the Author … … 952
About the Book … … … 955
Other Recent Books by the Author … 957

English

ENDORSEMENTS OF DR. DAN MOU, THE AUTHOR’S BOOKS

• “These books are a must read. Dr. Dan Mou, a world-class trained political scientist, who has served at various Ministries and parastatals in Nigeria before retirement, has made stoning revelations.” Lead Times Africa Magazine

• “Dr. Dan Mou, a varsity don and seasoned civil servant, (who) spent over two decades working in Nigeria’s Presidency, provides deep insights in these books, into the intractable security situation in Nigeria and Africa, among other issues.” Daily Trust

• “Dr. Dan Mou, an accomplished political scientist and public servant with a firm grasp of national security and public policy … has revealed a lot in his new book: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes 1 & 2. Public policy and the state of affairs in Nigeria is the focus of this excellent and well researched book filled with the authors contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria … Dr. Mou rightly predicted what we are currently witnessing in Nigeria in this excellent book that all Nigerians should read.” The Nation.

• “I did not only get autographed copies of the book … which incidentally is filled with the author’s contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria. … how would I have known that this was the man that wrote a personal Memo to former President Olusegun Obasanjo that led to the establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)? How would I have also known that he was equally the brain behind a personal Memo that led to the establishment of the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and the Amnesty Programme that brought relative peace to that hitherto restive region? … It can be quite painful doing the ‘donkey job’ without being appreciated. In all this, did I detect any hint of bitterness in Dr. Mou? Not at all. He is still contributing his quota to ensure Nigeria gets back on the right track. This is surely one optimistic Nigerian.” The Nation.

• “Having successfully designed and masterminded many workable national schemes in the past in Nigeria, like the memoranda that led to the establishment of the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission), Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs, the Amnesty Programme for the Niger Delta Region Militants, to mention just a few … Dr. Dan Mou, in these books, has (proposed) permanent solutions to these public policy challenges. … it is no fallacy to say that no one else could have done it better.” Dr. O.W. Bashorun, Provost, College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria

• “Dr. Dan Mou, Executive Chairman of centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity, has recently published 10 books on such topical issues as national security, good governance, democracy, girl child education and sustainable development. All 10 books were authored by Dr. Mou and appeal to a wide and varied audience, including policy makers and scholars.
I have personally gleaned through some of the books, and have read some reviews and endorsements by scholars and relevant authorities. I am thus convinced that the books would be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars, policy makers and students in higher institutions including strategic level establishments such as the National Defence College. As one critic rightly observed, “the purpose of these books is to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “I am very impressed with their theoretical scope, command of extant literature and methodological sophistication. Dr. Mou’s books should be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars - from political theorists, to political economists as well as African area specialists.” Professor Crawford Young, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, U.S.A.

• “There is this perception that Nigerians don’t write and read. This perception is deep seated, even among intellectuals who see our authors as shallow researchers. But Making of an African Giant by Dr. Dan Mou, has debunked that myth and shown that Nigerians can write well researched and detailed books. So we have to ensure that readers know the book exists … It is quite prophetic in its assessment of the Nigerian State.” Agbo Agbo, Columnist, The Nation Newspaper.

• “Dr. Dan Mou’s Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Volumes 1 & 2 which cover 1,860 pages, are not just mere books. They are clearly encyclopedia. Everything you want to know about the State, Politics, economy and society in Nigeria is there!” Dr. Yima Sen, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … Thanks for contributing to knowledge. Your books are highly expository and full of discoveries … We are very proud of you.” S.A. Raofu, Chairman, Committee of Deans, AOCOE, Lagos, Nigeria.

• “The books by Dr. Dan Mou are chunky both in terms of size but also in terms of content and of course price. But essentially, each one is worth the investment as they would not only enrich the Library but avail readers within and outside the College, including Research Fellows, of invaluable sources of reliable and well-researched works on topics of critical importance to current national and international issues. Some of the topics could form the basis of further research, thus extending the frontiers of knowledge. Out of the 10 books listed I am inclined to recommend that the College Library should acquire 7. These are:

a) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post-Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.I.
b) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post- Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.II
c) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol.I.
d) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol. II.
e) National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa.
f) State Power, Agrarian Policies & Peasant Welfare in Nigeria.
g) Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa”.
Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria

• “I have bought and read these Dr. Mou’s books. It is clear now that I am one of his quiet admirers … Dr. Mou is certainly one of the best scholars we have on the African continent … As an educationist myself, before I became a Traditional Ruler, I agree totally with his analysis and conclusions in these books. In particular I recommend these books to governments, politicians, policy makers, educationalists and the general public.

I share the optimism Dr. Mou has expressed in these books, that once the recommendations there in are adopted and meticulously implemented, with proper monitoring and evaluation of such resultant policies and programmes, Nigeria and indeed Africa, would be able to solve most of the challenges currently associated with national security, good governance and democracy on the continent.

Buy these books, read these books and above all, take the necessary steps to implement the policy recommendations Dr. Mou has offered therein all over the continent of Africa. Well done, Dr. Mou.” HRH Alh. (Dr.) Sheban Audu, Nizazo III, Etsu Kwali, Etsu Kwali’s Palace, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “The purpose of Dr. Dan Mou in these books is certainly to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa. Dr. Mou, a reputable public policy expert of world-class standing, who had also worked for three decades at the highest level in the Public Service of Nigeria, and currently serves as a Member of the Presidential Jobs Board in the Presidency at Abuja, has done an excellent work in these books.
I am very thankful to God and to Dr. Mou that these seven books are now available for all to read. I hope that the rich content of these books will generate the needed debate, awareness and stimulate concrete policy actions to tackle these issues in Africa that would guarantee maximum positive results.
I recommend these books as a must-read for educationists, scholars, policy matters, politicians and the general public.” Dr. Edet B. Ekpenyong, President, Pan African Girl Child Education Foundation, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “I thank God for having the opportunity to read four of Dr. Dan Mou’s recently released books on different subjects relating to Nigeria and Africa as a whole. The ones I have so far read are:

Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, (Volumes I and 2); National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria – all published by AuthorHouse in Bloomington, Indiana, USA; and Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa, published by Pan African Publishing House, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. Dan Mou has proven himself a world-class scholar and an intellectual colossus. His reputation as an internationally renowned public policy expert has continued to soar…
Dr. Mou’s books are meant to solve African problems and they surely would. These books of a literary icon are strongly recommended for intellectuals, policy makers, and even for the general readers. I congratulate him for these remarkable achievements.” Professor Justice Abdul Fatai Kuti, First Justice of Abuja High Court; and former Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State of Nigeria.

• “Dear Prof. Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these stimulating and wonderful books. Yes, this is you! … I believe these books would make landmark contributions to knowledge! Well done… Best Regards.” Gen. Chris A. Garuba, CFR., Former Military Governor of Bauchi State and former Commandant, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “The books [by Dr. Dan Mou] are impeccably well-packaged, well written and arranged. The language is lucid and reader-friendly. As already indicated, the books are bulky and intimidating but once picked up it is difficult to put down. That is the power of the narrative and analysis: indeed, that is the selling point for the books and Dr. Mou must be commended for this intensive and extensive forage into public sector research”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Professor Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these two outstanding text books: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes I and 2. This is what Professors should be doing to promote academic excellence. Your achievements do not come as a surprise to me. You are really worth this! Warm Regards.” Dr. Elijah Apine, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

• “The College Librarian may wish to consider acquisition of these Dr. Dan Mou’s books in order to enrich the collection of the College Library while projecting it as a reliable and authoritative source of good books in the FCT and indeed the country”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … I am highly impressed with your academic accomplishments, especially your copious research, which is both social, political and academic. Your flair for writing is amazing. I am delighted that you will be attending the … National Conference as you promised. I am sure many will like to meet you having read much of your published research. May God keep you and give you happy times to His Glory”. Dr. Titus Terver Udu, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … you are a gem and a rare gift to the intellectual world.” Prof. Zanzan Uji, Dean, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
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