Politics of Religious Accommodation
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More About This Title Politics of Religious Accommodation


One of the greatest challenges to the peace, internal security and development in Nigeria, is religious intolerance, including of course, religious terrorism. This seems to be threatening Nigeria’s unity, inter-faith harmony and national cohesion across the board. No one knows how widespread these feelings of religious intolerance exist in the country. It is not clear whether these are more prevalent among the illiterates and the less educated or even among the educated Nigerians as well. Among these categories of the most educated Nigerians are the University academic and administrative staff as well as University students. It is very important therefore, to examine the attitudes towards religious intolerance on the University campuses in Nigeria.
The task for policy makers and analysts alike is to research the extent of the religious problem and determine ways in which to prevent the emergence of a total religious war in Nigeria that will engulf the whole country, beyond the current one with the Islamic militant sect, Boko Haram, that is already going on in the North Eastern parts of the country. This is the major task that has been undertaken in this study. We conducted a random survey on sampled Nigerian University campuses, analysed and discussed the data and used the findings to propose some concrete policy recommendations on how these religious problems in Nigeria could be tackled.


Dr. Dan Mou is currently the Executive Chairman, Centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity (CEPEDEO), Abuja, Nigeria. He holds a B.Sc. Hons. Political Science (1979). University of Ibadan, Nigeria; M.A. (1982) and Ph.D. (1986), University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A. specializing in Public Policy Analysis and African Politics. He also has a Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), International Law and Diplomacy (2013), Pacific Western University, Colorado, U.S.A. and another Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), Business Administration (2013), Cornerstone University, Jerusalem, Israel.
He lectured at the University of Jos, Nigeria and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A., before joining the Presidency in Nigeria in 1989, where his positions included: Director (Narcotics Drugs Control); Director (Special Duties), Director (Monitoring and Evaluation), and later appointed the Secretary, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP). He also served as Director, Nigeria Air Force, and Director (Human Resources) Ministry of Defence, as well as Director (Human Resources, Inspectorate and Management Services), Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, he served as a Member, Presidential Jobs Board, State House, The Presidency, Abuja, Nigeria.
Dr. Mou further served as Special Adviser (National Security Affairs) to the National Security Advisers in the Presidency, under three consecutive Nigerian Governments. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and books. His bestsellers are: National Security and Democratic Governance in Nigeria; Keys to Good Governance; National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria; and Making of An African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes One and Two; Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa; Serving the Nation as a Calling: How Experts can Influence Public Policies Without Being in Power and National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Post-Military Rule Nigeria. His marriage to Mimidoo Osewe Mou is blessed with children.
e-mail: [email protected].


Endorsements of Dr. Dan Mou,
the Main Author’s Books … … vii
Acknowledgements … … xvi
Preface … … xviii
List of Tables … … xx
Chapter 1: Introduction … … 2
(i) Problem Background … … 3
(ii) Objective of the Study … … 4
Chapter 2: Research Design and Methodology … 6
(i) Scope of the Study … … 6
(ii) Operationalization and Definition of Concepts 7
(a) Internal Security … … 7
(b) Religion … … 9
(c) The State … … 10
(d) Religious Tolerance/Intolerance/Terrorism 11
(e) Religious War (Jihad)/Violence … 12
(f) Poverty … … … 13
(g) Socialization … … 14
Chapter 3: Major Causes of Student Unrest on
University Campuses: A Theoretical Exploration … … 16
(i) Introduction … … 16
(ii) Major Causes of Student Unrest … 17
(a) The Turbulent Generation … 17
(b) Socialization and Student Unrest … 19
(c) Social Psychological and Psychiatric Causes 26
(d) University Environmental Factors … 29
(e) Collective Behaviour and Student Unrest 36
(f) Class Conflicts and Student Unrest … 39
(iii) Conclusion … … 40
Chapter 4: Review of Studies on the State, Religion,
and Politics: A Framework for Analysis 51
(i) Review of Studies on the State, Religion
and Politics … … 51
(ii) The State, Religion and Politics … 52
(iii) The State and Religion: Three Options … 53
(a) The Atheistic Option; … … 53
(b) The Totalitarian or Assimilationist Option 53
(c) The State Neutrality Model … 54
(iii) Significance of the Study … … 54


Chapter 5: Religious Intolerance on Nigerian University
Campuses: Data Analysis and Discussion 57
(i) The State and Religious Intolerance … 57
(ii) State and Religious Fanaticism … 62
(iii) State Religion and University Senior Staff … 66
(iv) Religious Terrorism/War … … 70
(v) Religion and Politics … … 73
(vi) Religious Fanaticism and Politics … 75
(vii) Religion and World Politics … … 80
(viii) Conclusion … … … 82
(ix) Policy Recommendations … … 84
(x) General Reflections … … 91


Chapter 6: The Search for Peace, Security and
Challenges of Inter-Faith Harmony … 97
(i) Introduction and Overview … … 97
(ii) Conceptualization: Peace, Security and
Inter-Faithism … … … 103
(a) Peace … … … 104
(b) Security … … … 106
(c) Inter-Faith Harmony … … 114
(d) Religion … … … 115
(e) Religious War (Jihad) … … 116
(f) Religious Violence … … 117
(g) Socialization … … 117
(h) Poverty … … … 119

Chapter 7: Conditions for Practising Inter-Faith
Harmony or Inter-Faithism … 120
(i) Super-Natural Being or Beings … 121
(ii) Conception of Heaven and Hell … 121
(iii) Strategies of Socialization and Conversion … 121
(iv) Ritual Acts and Sacred Objects … 121
(v) Moral and Religious Code of Behaviour … 121
(vi) Modes of Prayer(s) and Other Communication
with the God(s) … … 122
(vii) Vision and World View … … 123
Chapter 8: Possibility of Inter-Faithism Between
Christianity and Islam … 124
(i) Belief in the Same Supernatural Being - God 125
(ii) Conception of Heaven and Hell … 129
(iii) Socialization and Conversion Strategies … 136

Chapter 9: The State and Religion in Emerging:
Democracies: Towards the Politics of
Religious Accommodation … … 139
(i) The Atheistic Policy Option … … 141
(ii) The Totalitarian or Assimilationist Policy Option 142
(iii) The State Neutrality Policy Option … 142
(iv) Conclusion … … … 143

Bibliography … … … 148
About the Book … … … 154
About the Authors … … … 156
Other Recent Books by the Authors … … 157



• “These books are a must read. Dr. Dan Mou, a world-class trained political scientist, who has served at various Ministries and parastatals in Nigeria before retirement, has made stoning revelations.” Lead Times Africa Magazine

• “Dr. Dan Mou, a varsity don and seasoned civil servant, (who) spent over two decades working in Nigeria’s Presidency, provides deep insights in these books, into the intractable security situation in Nigeria and Africa, among other issues.” Daily Trust

• “Dr. Dan Mou, an accomplished political scientist and public servant with a firm grasp of national security and public policy … has revealed a lot in his new book: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes 1 & 2. Public policy and the state of affairs in Nigeria is the focus of this excellent and well researched book filled with the authors contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria … Dr. Mou rightly predicted what we are currently witnessing in Nigeria in this excellent book that all Nigerians should read.” The Nation.

• “I did not only get autographed copies of the book … which incidentally is filled with the author’s contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria. … how would I have known that this was the man that wrote a personal Memo to former President Olusegun Obasanjo that led to the establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)? How would I have also known that he was equally the brain behind a personal Memo that led to the establishment of the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and the Amnesty Programme that brought relative peace to that hitherto restive region? … It can be quite painful doing the ‘donkey job’ without being appreciated. In all this, did I detect any hint of bitterness in Dr. Mou? Not at all. He is still contributing his quota to ensure Nigeria gets back on the right track. This is surely one optimistic Nigerian.” The Nation.

• “Having successfully designed and masterminded many workable national schemes in the past in Nigeria, like the memoranda that led to the establishment of the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission), Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs, the Amnesty Programme for the Niger Delta Region Militants, to mention just a few … Dr. Dan Mou, in these books, has (proposed) permanent solutions to these public policy challenges. … it is no fallacy to say that no one else could have done it better.” Dr. O.W. Bashorun, Provost, College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou, Executive Chairman of centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity, has recently published 10 books on such topical issues as national security, good governance, democracy, girl child education and sustainable development. All 10 books were authored by Dr. Mou and appeal to a wide and varied audience, including policy makers and scholars.
I have personally gleaned through some of the books, and have read some reviews and endorsements by scholars and relevant authorities. I am thus convinced that the books would be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars, policy makers and students in higher institutions including strategic level establishments such as the National Defence College. As one critic rightly observed, “the purpose of these books is to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “I am very impressed with their theoretical scope, command of extant literature and methodological sophistication. Dr. Mou’s books should be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars - from political theorists, to political economists as well as African area specialists.” Professor Crawford Young, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, U.S.A.

• “There is this perception that Nigerians don’t write and read. This perception is deep seated, even among intellectuals who see our authors as shallow researchers. But Making of an African Giant by Dr. Dan Mou, has debunked that myth and shown that Nigerians can write well researched and detailed books. So we have to ensure that readers know the book exists … It is quite prophetic in its assessment of the Nigerian State.” Agbo Agbo, Columnist, The Nation Newspaper.

• “Dr. Dan Mou’s Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Volumes 1 & 2 which cover 1,860 pages, are not just mere books. They are clearly encyclopedia. Everything you want to know about the State, Politics, economy and society in Nigeria is there!” Dr. Yima Sen, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … Thanks for contributing to knowledge. Your books are highly expository and full of discoveries … We are very proud of you.” S.A. Raofu, Chairman, Committee of Deans, AOCOE, Lagos, Nigeria.

• “The books by Dr. Dan Mou are chunky both in terms of size but also in terms of content and of course price. But essentially, each one is worth the investment as they would not only enrich the Library but avail readers within and outside the College, including Research Fellows, of invaluable sources of reliable and well-researched works on topics of critical importance to current national and international issues. Some of the topics could form the basis of further research, thus extending the frontiers of knowledge. Out of the 10 books listed I am inclined to recommend that the College Library should acquire 7. These are:
a) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post-Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.I.
b) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post- Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.II
c) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol.I.
d) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol. II.
e) National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa.
f) State Power, Agrarian Policies & Peasant Welfare in Nigeria.
g) Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa”.
Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria
• “I have bought and read these Dr. Mou’s books. It is clear now that I am one of his quiet admirers … Dr. Mou is certainly one of the best scholars we have on the African continent … As an educationist myself, before I became a Traditional Ruler, I agree totally with his analysis and conclusions in these books. In particular I recommend these books to governments, politicians, policy makers, educationalists and the general public.

I share the optimism Dr. Mou has expressed in these books, that once the recommendations there in are adopted and meticulously implemented, with proper monitoring and evaluation of such resultant policies and programmes, Nigeria and indeed Africa, would be able to solve most of the challenges currently associated with national security, good governance and democracy on the continent.
Buy these books, read these books and above all, take the necessary steps to implement the policy recommendations Dr. Mou has offered therein all over the continent of Africa. Well done, Dr. Mou.” HRH Alh. (Dr.) Sheban Audu, Nizazo III, Etsu Kwali, Etsu Kwali’s Palace, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “The purpose of Dr. Dan Mou in these books is certainly to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa. Dr. Mou, a reputable public policy expert of world-class standing, who had also worked for three decades at the highest level in the Public Service of Nigeria, and currently serves as a Member of the Presidential Jobs Board in the Presidency at Abuja, has done an excellent work in these books.
I am very thankful to God and to Dr. Mou that these seven books are now available for all to read. I hope that the rich content of these books will generate the needed debate, awareness and stimulate concrete policy actions to tackle these issues in Africa that would guarantee maximum positive results. I recommend these books as a must-read for educationists, scholars, policy matters, politicians and the general public.” Dr. Edet B. Ekpenyong, President, Pan African Girl Child Education Foundation, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “I thank God for having the opportunity to read four of Dr. Dan Mou’s recently released books on different subjects relating to Nigeria and Africa as a whole. The ones I have so far read are:

Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, (Volumes I and 2); National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria – all published by AuthorHouse in Bloomington, Indiana, USA; and Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa, published by Pan African Publishing House, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. Dan Mou has proven himself a world-class scholar and an intellectual colossus. His reputation as an internationally renowned public policy expert has continued to soar…
Dr. Mou’s books are meant to solve African problems and they surely would. These books of a literary icon are strongly recommended for intellectuals, policy makers, and even for the general readers. I congratulate him for these remarkable achievements.” Professor Justice Abdul Fatai Kuti, First Justice of Abuja High Court; and former Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State of Nigeria.

• “Dear Prof. Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these stimulating and wonderful books. Yes, this is you! … I believe these books would make landmark contributions to knowledge! Well done… Best Regards.” Gen. Chris A. Garuba, CFR., Former Military Governor of Bauchi State and former Commandant, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “The books [by Dr. Dan Mou] are impeccably well-packaged, well written and arranged. The language is lucid and reader-friendly, … the books are bulky and intimidating but once picked up it is difficult to put down. That is the power of the narrative and analysis: indeed, that is the selling point for the books and Dr. Mou must be commended for this intensive and extensive forage into public sector research”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Professor Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these two outstanding text books: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes I and 2. This is what Professors should be doing to promote academic excellence. Your achievements do not come as a surprise to me. You are really worth this! Warm Regards.” Dr. Elijah Apine, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

• “The College Librarian may wish to consider acquisition of these Dr. Dan Mou’s books in order to enrich the collection of the College Library while projecting it as a reliable and authoritative source of good books in the FCT and indeed the country”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … I am highly impressed with your academic accomplishments, especially your copious research, which is both social, political and academic. Your flair for writing is amazing. I am delighted that you will be attending the … National Conference as you promised. I am sure many will like to meet you having read much of your published research. May God keep you and give you happy times to His Glory”. Dr. Titus Terver Udu, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.