Winning Poverty Battle
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English

The concern for poverty eradication and inclusive growth is a global phenomenon. However, this book shows that countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, have not done very well in these areas. There is therefore, the compelling need to intensify efforts at all levels of Governments and even within the Private Sector, to address these matters.
It points out that there is clearly a dire need for countries, such as Nigeria, to refocus attention, resources and policy strategies to the critical areas of poverty eradication and inclusive growth. This is indeed self-evident now that Nigeria has moved from military rule to a democratic form of Government that must be pre-occupied with providing dividends of democracy to her citizens. To turn the challenges of poverty and the growing inequalities in the country into real opportunities, the book suggests that there is need for refocussing Nigeria’s Poverty Eradication and Inclusive Growth Strategies.
It points out that the economic, political and social problems challenging national security and the social order in Nigeria, would get better or worse, depending on what happens to poverty eradication, and job creation – given that forty five percent (45%) of the youths are currently unemployed and excluded from the benefits of growth in Nigeria.
Because of these prevailing factors, the book reveals that one does not need to be a “political prophet” to predict that if these policy issues are not successfully addressed, the country will be faced with severe economic, social, political and security crises far greater than what is happening at the moment.
The good news, however, is that the book foresees a situation where, as the economic, social, political and security crises intensify, Nigerian Government and leaders, even if it is simply for their self-preservation, will be forced by the objective conditions, to move against the interests of these dominant groups and classes who have hijacked the national resources for their exclusive use, and are not eager to promote inclusive growth nor poverty eradication on a serious note.
The book concludes, therefore, that as these pressures become totally unbearable for the Nigerian Government to handle, she will be forced to make significant policy changes. Such revised policy changes would promote the prosperity of the majority seventy one per cent (71%) of Nigerians who are still living below the poverty line of one dollar a day, according to the Nigerian National Bureau of Statistic (NBS).
This will entail drastically instituting policies and programmes aimed at promoting poverty eradication and inclusive growth. It is only than that Nigeria can realistically be restored to the possibility of realizing her manifest destiny of becoming the African Giant, which most Nigerians and even non-Nigerians, are expecting her to be.

English

Dr. Dan Mou is currently the Executive Chairman, Centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity (CEPEDEO), Abuja, Nigeria. He holds a B.Sc. Hons. Political Science (1979). University of Ibadan, Nigeria; M.A. (1982) and Ph.D. (1986), University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A. specializing in Public Policy Analysis and African Politics. He also has a Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), International Law and Diplomacy (2013), Pacific Western University, Colorado, U.S.A. and another Ph.D. (Honoris Causa), Business Administration (2013), Cornerstone University, Jerusalem, Israel.
He lectured at the University of Jos, Nigeria and the University of Wisconsin, Madison, U.S.A., before joining the Presidency in Nigeria in 1989, where his positions included: Director (Narcotics Drugs Control); Director (Special Duties), Director (Monitoring and Evaluation), and later appointed the Secretary, National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP). He also served as Director, Nigeria Air Force, and Director (Human Resources) Ministry of Defence, as well as Director (Human Resources, Inspectorate and Management Services), Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In addition, he served as a Member, Presidential Jobs Board, State House, The Presidency, Abuja, Nigeria.
Dr. Mou further served as Special Adviser (National Security Affairs) to the National Security Advisers in the Presidency, under three consecutive Nigerian Governments. He has published extensively in scholarly journals and books. His bestsellers are: National Security and Democratic Governance in Nigeria; Keys to Good Governance; National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria; and Making of An African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes One and Two; Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa; Serving the Nation as a Calling: How Experts can Influence Public Policies Without Being in Power and National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Post-Military Rule Nigeria. His marriage to Mimidoo Osewe Mou is blessed with children.
e-mail: [email protected]

English

CONTENTS
Endorsements of Dr. Dan Mou, the Author’s Books vii
Acknowledgements … … xvii
Preface … … xxviii
List of Tables … … xxx
Abbreviations … … xxxi

Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION … 1

Chapter 2: POLICY STRATEGIES, POVERTY
ERADICATION AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH:
CONCEPTUAL ISSUES … … 6
(i) Dynamics of Poverty and Poverty Reduction 6
(ii) Concepts of Inclusive Growth & Development 12
(iii) Scope of Inclusive Growth in Plural Societies 13
(iv) Good Governance and Inclusive Growth 30
(v) Democracy and Inclusive Growth … 40
Chapter 3: THE NIGERIAN EXPERIENCE UNDER
DEMOCRACIC RULE ... … 47
(i) The Good Governance Dimension … 50
(ii) Democracy and Inclusive Growth … 60
(iii) The Poverty Eradication Dimension … 73
Chapter 4: TOWARDS THE RELEVANT POLICY
STRATEGIES: COORDINATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION … … 103
(i) System-Oriented Coordination … 104
(ii) Service-Oriented Coordination … 104
(iii) Top-down and Bottom-up Coordination 105
Benefits of Coordination … … 106
Challenges of Coordination … … 107
(i) Bureaucratic barriers and turf-protection 107
(ii) Problems Associated with Harmonization
of Philosophies, Mandates and Visions … 107
(iii) Accountability and Performance Standard
Issues … … … 108
(iv) Incompatibility of Management Information
Systems and MDAs’ Culture … 109
(v) Different Eligibility Requirements … 109
Monitoring and Evaluation: Issues and Challenges 110
The Purpose of Monitoring and Evaluation … 112
Tools for Monitoring and Evaluation of Poverty
Eradication Efforts … … 113

Chapter 5: CHALLENGES OF COORDINATION,
MONITORING AND EVALUATION … 117
(i) Low Capacity for Carrying out M&E Activities 117
(ii) Absence or Rudimentary Nature of
Management Information Systems … 124
(iii) Perception of M&E as the “Police” in Most MDAs 124
(iv) Lack of Collaboration and Coordination by MDAs 119
(v) The Lack of Sufficient Donor Support on M&E 119
(vi) Lack of M&E Outfits at State and Local Government
Levels … … 119
(vii) Dissemination and Utilization of M&E Findings 119
Chapter 6: Policy Recommendations … 121
Chapter 7: Conclusions … … 123
References … … 132
BIBLIOGRAPHY … … 155
APPENDIX I … … 205
Proposal for Establishment of a National Empowerment and Inclusive Growth Commission to Carter for 71% (Seventy One Percent) of Nigerians Still in Mass Poverty, Excluded from Enjoying Dividends of Democracy and Development in Their own Country. Being a Paper Prepared for the President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR, as a Reaction to the Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty and Excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in Nigeria, dated 16th March, 2016.
APPENDIX II
Internal Security, Poverty Eradication and Inclusive Growth: A Case for the Establishment of National Poverty Eradication and Equal Opportunity Commission in Nigeria: Prepared for the President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR, As A Reaction To The Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty and excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in their own Country, dated 21st September, 2017.
APPENDIX III … … 222
A Case for the Establishment of a Federal Ministry of Poverty Eradication and Social Inclusion in Nigeria: Being A Private Memo Prepared For The President and Commander-in-Chief, Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, His Excellency President Muhammadu Buhari, GCFR to Tackle the Growing Number of Nigerians Still Living in Mass Poverty (71%), and Excluded from Enjoying the Dividends of Democracy and Development in Nigeria forcing Many of them to Flock to Foreign Nations Illegally dated 30th November, 2017.

About the Book … … 250
About the Author … … 252
Recent Books by the Author … … 253
Annexure “A”: What Wushishi and I had in Mind
When We Conceived EFCC: Interview by Lead
Times Africa Magazine June-July, 2013 … 271
Annexure “B”: Tackling Corruption in Nigeria by
Monitoring and Evaluation … … 288
Annexure “C”: Why I wrote National Security,
Democracy and Good Governance in Post-Military
Rule Nigeria … … 311
Annexure “D”: The One Option Jonathan has
Avoided on Insecurity … … 321
Annexure “E”: Transformation Agenda Ought
To be Actionable by Now … … 332

English

ENDORSEMENTS OF DR. DAN MOU,
THE MAIN AUTHOR’S BOOKS

• “These books are a must read. Dr. Dan Mou, a world-class trained political scientist, who has served at various Ministries and parastatals in Nigeria before retirement, has made stoning revelations.” Lead Times Africa Magazine

• “Dr. Dan Mou, a varsity don and seasoned civil servant, (who) spent over two decades working in Nigeria’s Presidency, provides deep insights in these books, into the intractable security situation in Nigeria and Africa, among other issues.” Daily Trust

• “Dr. Dan Mou, an accomplished political scientist and public servant with a firm grasp of national security and public policy … has revealed a lot in his new book: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes 1 & 2. Public policy and the state of affairs in Nigeria is the focus of this excellent and well researched book filled with the authors contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria … Dr. Mou rightly predicted what we are currently witnessing in Nigeria in this excellent book that all Nigerians should read.” The Nation.

• “I did not only get autographed copies of the book … which incidentally is filled with the author’s contributions toward a better and prosperous Nigeria. … how would I have known that this was the man that wrote a personal Memo to former President Olusegun Obasanjo that led to the establishment of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)? How would I have also known that he was equally the brain behind a personal Memo that led to the establishment of the Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs and the Amnesty Programme that brought relative peace to that hitherto restive region? … It can be quite painful doing the ‘donkey job’ without being appreciated. In all this, did I detect any hint of bitterness in Dr. Mou? Not at all. He is still contributing his quota to ensure Nigeria gets back on the right track. This is surely one optimistic Nigerian.” The Nation.

• “Having successfully designed and masterminded many workable national schemes in the past in Nigeria, like the memoranda that led to the establishment of the EFCC (Economic and Financial Crimes Commission), Ministry of Niger Delta Affairs, the Amnesty Programme for the Niger Delta Region Militants, to mention just a few … Dr. Dan Mou, in these books, has (proposed) permanent solutions to these public policy challenges. … it is no fallacy to say that no one else could have done it better.” Dr. O.W. Bashorun, Provost, College of Education, Lagos, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou, Executive Chairman of centre for Poverty Eradication, Development and Equal Opportunity, has recently published 10 books on such topical issues as national security, good governance, democracy, girl child education and sustainable development. All 10 books were authored by Dr. Mou and appeal to a wide and varied audience, including policy makers and scholars.
I have personally gleaned through some of the books, and have read some reviews and endorsements by scholars and relevant authorities. I am thus convinced that the books would be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars, policy makers and students in higher institutions including strategic level establishments such as the National Defence College. As one critic rightly observed, “the purpose of these books is to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “I am very impressed with their theoretical scope, command of extant literature and methodological sophistication. Dr. Mou’s books should be of immense interest to a broad range of scholars - from political theorists, to political economists as well as African area specialists.” Professor Crawford Young, Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison, U.S.A.

• “There is this perception that Nigerians don’t write and read. This perception is deep seated, even among intellectuals who see our authors as shallow researchers. But Making of an African Giant by Dr. Dan Mou, has debunked that myth and shown that Nigerians can write well researched and detailed books. So we have to ensure that readers know the book exists … It is quite prophetic in its assessment of the Nigerian State.” Agbo Agbo, Columnist, The Nation Newspaper.

• “Dr. Dan Mou’s Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Volumes 1 & 2 which cover 1,860 pages, are not just mere books. They are clearly encyclopedia. Everything you want to know about the State, Politics, economy and society in Nigeria is there!” Dr. Yima Sen, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communication, Baze University, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … Thanks for contributing to knowledge. Your books are highly expository and full of discoveries … We are very proud of you.” S.A. Raofu, Chairman, Committee of Deans, AOCOE, Lagos, Nigeria.

• “The books by Dr. Dan Mou are chunky both in terms of size but also in terms of content and of course price. But essentially, each one is worth the investment as they would not only enrich the Library but avail readers within and outside the College, including Research Fellows, of invaluable sources of reliable and well-researched works on topics of critical importance to current national and international issues. Some of the topics could form the basis of further research, thus extending the frontiers of knowledge. Out of the 10 books listed I am inclined to recommend that the College Library should acquire 7. These are:
a) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post-Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.I.
b) National Security, Democracy and Good Governance in Post- Military Rule in Nigeria Vol.II
c) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol.I.
d) Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria Vol. II.
e) National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa.
f) State Power, Agrarian Policies & Peasant Welfare in Nigeria.
g) Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa”.
Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria
• “I have bought and read these Dr. Mou’s books. It is clear now that I am one of his quiet admirers … Dr. Mou is certainly one of the best scholars we have on the African continent … As an educationist myself, before I became a Traditional Ruler, I agree totally with his analysis and conclusions in these books. In particular I recommend these books to governments, politicians, policy makers, educationalists and the general public.

I share the optimism Dr. Mou has expressed in these books, that once the recommendations there in are adopted and meticulously implemented, with proper monitoring and evaluation of such resultant policies and programmes, Nigeria and indeed Africa, would be able to solve most of the challenges currently associated with national security, good governance and democracy on the continent.
Buy these books, read these books and above all, take the necessary steps to implement the policy recommendations Dr. Mou has offered therein all over the continent of Africa. Well done, Dr. Mou.” HRH Alh. (Dr.) Sheban Audu, Nizazo III, Etsu Kwali, Etsu Kwali’s Palace, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “The purpose of Dr. Dan Mou in these books is certainly to stimulate international policy debate on the problems associated with sustainable development, national security, good governance and democracy in Africa. Dr. Mou, a reputable public policy expert of world-class standing, who had also worked for three decades at the highest level in the Public Service of Nigeria, and currently serves as a Member of the Presidential Jobs Board in the Presidency at Abuja, has done an excellent work in these books.
I am very thankful to God and to Dr. Mou that these seven books are now available for all to read. I hope that the rich content of these books will generate the needed debate, awareness and stimulate concrete policy actions to tackle these issues in Africa that would guarantee maximum positive results. I recommend these books as a must-read for educationists, scholars, policy matters, politicians and the general public.” Dr. Edet B. Ekpenyong, President, Pan African Girl Child Education Foundation, Abuja, Nigeria.

• “I thank God for having the opportunity to read four of Dr. Dan Mou’s recently released books on different subjects relating to Nigeria and Africa as a whole. The ones I have so far read are:

Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, (Volumes I and 2); National Security, Good Governance and Democracy in Africa; State Power, Agrarian Policies and Peasant Welfare in Nigeria – all published by AuthorHouse in Bloomington, Indiana, USA; and Girl Child Education, Democratic Governance and Sustainable Development in Africa, published by Pan African Publishing House, Abuja, Nigeria.

Dr. Dan Mou has proven himself a world-class scholar and an intellectual colossus. His reputation as an internationally renowned public policy expert has continued to soar…
Dr. Mou’s books are meant to solve African problems and they surely would. These books of a literary icon are strongly recommended for intellectuals, policy makers, and even for the general readers. I congratulate him for these remarkable achievements.” Professor Justice Abdul Fatai Kuti, First Justice of Abuja High Court; and former Dean, Faculty of Law, University of Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State of Nigeria.

• “Dear Prof. Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these stimulating and wonderful books. Yes, this is you! … I believe these books would make landmark contributions to knowledge! Well done… Best Regards.” Gen. Chris A. Garuba, CFR., Former Military Governor of Bauchi State and former Commandant, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “The books [by Dr. Dan Mou] are impeccably well-packaged, well written and arranged. The language is lucid and reader-friendly, … the books are bulky and intimidating but once picked up it is difficult to put down. That is the power of the narrative and analysis: indeed, that is the selling point for the books and Dr. Mou must be commended for this intensive and extensive forage into public sector research”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Professor Dan Mou,
Congratulations for these two outstanding text books: Making of an African Giant: State, Politics and Public Policy in Nigeria, Volumes I and 2. This is what Professors should be doing to promote academic excellence. Your achievements do not come as a surprise to me. You are really worth this! Warm Regards.” Dr. Elijah Apine, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Sciences, University of Jos, Nigeria.

• “The College Librarian may wish to consider acquisition of these Dr. Dan Mou’s books in order to enrich the collection of the College Library while projecting it as a reliable and authoritative source of good books in the FCT and indeed the country”. Ambassador (Dr.) CW Wigwe, fwc, fdc (+), Provost, Centre for Strategic Research and Studies, National Defence College, Nigeria.

• “Dr. Dan Mou … I am highly impressed with your academic accomplishments, especially your copious research, which is both social, political and academic. Your flair for writing is amazing. I am delighted that you will be attending the … National Conference as you promised. I am sure many will like to meet you having read much of your published research. May God keep you and give you happy times to His Glory”. Dr. Titus Terver Udu, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Education, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria.

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